top-rated free essay

Parenting Styles

By samanthaj1005 Apr 10, 2013 1629 Words

Four different styles of parenting and their effects on children

Samantha Johnson

Hillsborough Community College

FOUR DIFFERENT STYLES OF PARENTING 2 Four different styles of parenting and their effects on children

The correlation between parenting styles and child development has always interested me and therefore is the reason why I chose to write about it. A parenting style can be defined as a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing. During the 1960’s, psychologist Diana Baumrind conducted a study in which she used naturalistic observation, parental interviews, and other research methods to study over 100 preschool-aged children. It was from this study that she determined three different types of parenting based on two aspects of parenting behavior: control and warmth. Parental control can be described as the amount of supervision parents exercise, the decisions parents make about their children’s activities and friends, and the rules parents give to their children (Amato 1990). Amato has also characterized parental warmth as the expression of interest in children’s activities and friends, expression of praise and encouragement for their children’s accomplishments, and the demonstration of love and affection. The three different styles of parenting that Baumrind identified were authoritarian parenting, authoritative parenting, and permissive parenting. Further research also added a fourth type of parenting called uninvolved parenting.

One of the main parenting styles defined by Baumrind was the authoritarian parenting style. In this specific form of parenting, parents are very strict with the rules they give their children and expect these rules to be followed unconditionally. Basically, obedience to the strict rules equates to love. These parents hold high expectations of their kids. They demand obedience and status within their children’s lives and are very FOUR DIFFERENT STYLES OF PARENTING 3

demanding, yet unresponsive. Authoritarian parents tend to want to have complete and total control over their families. It can also sometimes be referred to as military style of parenting. Authoritarian parenting expects kids to accept parent’s judgments, values, and opinions without any questioning. As in, “you do what I say because I said so.” So what are the effects of an authoritarian parenting style on a child? Children raised in an authoritarian style household tend to have lower self-esteem, lower self-discipline, and an unequal regard for other humans. These kids are known to have bad judgment of character, poor social skills, and often this parenting style leads to rebellious acts by the kid. Because of the parent’s rules, children of authoritarian parents often are forced to associate obedience and success with love. Since these types of parents demand absolute obedience, their children are often very good at following rules. However, they tend to not be self-disciplined. These children are not encouraged by their parents to explore and act independently, which in turn results in the kids never really learning how to set their own limits and standards. Consequently, another style of parenting that was identified in the 1960’s was the authoritative style of parenting. Parents following this specific parenting style are all about setting limits, reasoning with their kids, and being responsive to their emotional needs. As you can see, it takes a little from the authoritarian style by setting limits, but in actuality is the complete opposite because it involves the unconditional love and nurturing that kids need. The most successful child outcomes are usually linked to an authoritative style of parenting. When looking at characteristics of kids raised this way, they tend to be more FOUR DIFFERENT STYLES OF PARENTING 4

independent, self-reliant, socially accepted, well behaved, and academically successful. These parents do in fact set high standards for their children, but are also responsive and nurturing. They show respect for their children as independent and rational human beings. Authoritative parenting usually leads to kids being mature and cooperative, with parents offering a lot of emotional support. Whenever these types of parents exhibit good emotional understanding, it allows the child to learn how to manage their own emotions while also learning to understand others as well. Because authoritative parenting encourages children to act more independently, it teaches kids that they are capable of accomplishing things by themselves, which leads to a strong self-esteem and self-confidence.

Moving to a completely different style of parenting then mentioned above, permissive parenting can often be referred to as indulgent parenting. These types of parents make relatively few demands of their children. They have low expectations for self-control and maturity, which in turn is why they rarely discipline their children. Whenever you hear of the parent that is more like a friend than an actual parent, you can associate that behavior with this specific parenting style. These parents are usually very nurturing and loving towards their kids. Since these parents seem to avoid any confrontation with their kids, they often are known to have little rules and discipline, and whenever there are rules set in place, they tend to be inconsistent. Inconsistency when raising children is not a good thing. Kids will see that as a weak point and can easily use it against the parents. To get a child to behave, a permissive parent might do something such as use toys or food as FOUR DIFFERENT STYLES OF PARENTING 5

bribery. Some effects on children raised in a permissive style of parenting include lack of self-discipline, poor social skills, self-involved, demanding, and/or insecure due to the lack of boundaries and guidance. Also, research shows that teens with permissive parents were three times more likely to engage in heavy drinking, drugs, and other risky behavior (Bahr, S. J. & Hoffmann)

The fourth style of parenting that was identified by researches years later after Diana Baumrind was uninvolved parenting. As could be inferred from the title, this type of parenting means that the parents are simply not involved in their child’s lives. Uninvolved parenting can also be referred to as neglectful parenting. This style is characterized by a lack of responsiveness to a child’s needs. These parents make few to perhaps no demands of their kids and are often indifferent, dismissive, or all together just neglectful. Uninvolved parents are emotionally distant from their children, offer little supervision, and show very little love and nurturing. When looking at children who have been raised this way, they often show deficits in cognition, attachment, emotional skills, and social skills. Basically, they perform poorly in every area of life. These kids have to learn how to provide for themselves, they fear becoming dependent on others, are often emotionally withdrawn, and feel fear, anxiety, or stress due to lack of support from their parents. In some cases, parents who were raised by uninvolved parents themselves, often revert to those same ways whenever raising their own children. In some instances, uninvolved parents are often so preoccupied with their own lives that they fail to see just how uninvolved they actually


are. Being overworked, coping with depression, or struggling with substance abuse are a few reasons why parents would become so involved with other things than providing emotional support for their children.

Parenting styles are important because the way a parent interacts with a child has a direct influence on their development. Parenting sets the stage for a child’s future emotional and social development. A child’s confidence and self-esteem level, their sense of security, their emotional well-being, the way they relate to other humans, how they deal with authority, and their success in school are all factors that can be affected when dealing with different parenting styles. Determining which parenting style is best for a parent and their child is very important. Parents need to be aware of the effects their behavior has on their child, and if necessary, should modify behavior accordingly.

To me, parenting styles are important because it is always something I have thought about while growing up. Whenever I was 4, my parents divorced, and going back and forth between two completely different households and rules is why this interests me. I would describe my mom as more of the permissive type of parent. She will do anything for us and always loves and cares for us, but has little to no discipline whatsoever. I can remember always thinking of ways to get around her punishments. My siblings and I had very little responsibilities around the house. On the other hand, life at my dad’s house was completely the opposite. Whenever my dad remarried is whenever things really started to change. Together, my dad and step-mom could be seen as authoritarian parents, mixed a little with authoritative. We have always been expected to do chores and things around the house, FOUR DIFFERENT STYLES OF PARENTING 7

and if we were to ever complain and whine, we knew that a spanking wouldn’t be too far behind. My dad and step-mom set rules and boundaries for my siblings and I that were expected to be followed. However, what they did do was explain their rules and reasoning for them. They made sure to never leave us wondering why they did the things they did. In the end, being raised between two different households, I feel that I turned out just fine. But parenting styles do have a direct effect on children, and is something that every parent should understand before going into raising a child.

Amato P. Dimensions of the family environment as perceived by children: A multidimensional scaling study. Journal of Marriage and the Family. 1990;52:613–620

Bahr, S. J. & Hoffmann, J. P. (2010). Parenting style, religiosity, peers, and adolescent heavy drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71, 539-543.

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Parenting Styles

    ...should be raised. Some of these parenting styles can have negative repercussions; while others will mold their children to be successful in the future. I have chosen to break them down to three basic parenting styles: Authoritarian, permissive, and democratic. The first style of parenting is authoritative. In this style parents tend to be extr...

    Read More
  • Parenting Styles

    ...Parenting Styles Every parent is different, and every child is raised differently. However, almost all parents tend to raise their children in one parenting style over another. When we consider how our parents raise their children, do we say they know what it takes to properly prepare them for what they will face outside the home?   We can s...

    Read More
  • Confucian Parenting

    ...Confucian Parenting Style Throughout history, the Confucian style of parenting has gained the attention of many parents in Asian countries. This authoritative style of parenting began in the Asian country of China. The whole idea of Confucian parenting is based on Confucianism, which is a culture based on proverbs and teachings of their leader...

    Read More
  • Authoritarian Parenting

    ... Republic of the philipines Eastern Visayas State University Tacloban City Influence of Childs Behavior in school by Authoritarian Parents Submitted by: Jerome G. Bustillo BSChE-2A Submitted to: Susana V. Loyola Instructor Authoritarian parenting: How does it affect the kids? Kids from authoritarian families are relat...

    Read More
  • Parenting Styles

    ...Parenting Styles Melissa Hameister Black Hawk Technical College Parenting Styles There are many differing theories and opinions on the best ways to rear children, as well as differing levels of time and effort that parents are willing to invest. Many parents create their own style from a combination of factors, and these may evolve over...

    Read More
  • Parenting Style

    ...The Important of Parenting Style Developmental psychologists have long been interested in how parents impact child development. However, finding actual cause-and-effect links between specific actions of parents and later behavior of children is very difficult. Some children raised in dramatically different environments can later grow up to have...

    Read More
  • Parenting Styles

    ...conduct. They are assertive, but not intrusive and restrictive. Their disciplinary methods are supportive, rather than punitive. They want their children to be assertive as well as socially responsible, and self-regulated as well as cooperative" (Baumrind, 1991, p. 62). * Authoritarian parenting, also called strict,[15] is characterized b...

    Read More
  • Parenting Styles

    ...Parenting Styles ECE355 Understanding Behavior and Family Dynamics Nancy Edwards May 20, 2012 Abstract When our children are born they are not given to us with instructions on what is the right way of parenting. The ways of parenting come in different forms, and as each child grows and develops different, parents raise each chi...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.