Clinical Anatomy 26:134–152 (2013)
Anatomy and Physiology of the Clitoris,
Vestibular Bulbs, and Labia Minora With a
Review of the Female Orgasm and the
Prevention of Female Sexual Dysfunction
Centro Italiano di Sessuologia (CIS), Via Regnoli 74, Bologna, Italy
This review, with 21 ﬁgures and 1 video, aims to clarify some important aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs (triggers of orgasm), which are important for the prevention of female sexual dysfunction. The clitoris is the homologue of the male’s glans and corpora cavernosa, and erection is reached in three phases: latent, turgid, and rigid. The vestibular bulbs cause ‘‘vaginal’’ orgasmic contractions, through the rhythmic contraction of the bulbocavernosus muscles. Because of the engorgement with blood during sexual arousal, the labia minora become turgid, doubling or tripling in thickness. The corpus spongiosum of the female urethra becomes congested during sexual arousal; therefore, male erection equals erection of the female erectile organs. The correct anatomical term to describe the erectile tissues responsible for female orgasm is the female penis. Vaginal orgasm and the G-spot do not exist. These claims are found in numerous articles that have been written by Addiego F, Whipple B, Jannini E, Buisson O, O’Connell H, Brody S, Ostrzenski A, and others, have no scientiﬁc basis. Orgasm is an intense sensation of pleasure achieved by stimulation of erogenous zones. Women do not have a refractory period after each orgasm and can, therefore, experience multiple orgasms. Clitoral sexual response and the female orgasm are not affected by aging. Sexologists should deﬁne having sex/love making when orgasm occurs for both partners with or without vaginal intercourse. Clin. Anat. 26:134–152, 2013. V 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Key words: clitoris; vulva; urethra; penis; G-spot; sex education; orgasmic dysfunction
The anatomy and physiology of the female orgasm
is often neglected, and female sexuality is still widely
considered as it was 100 years ago when Freud
invented the term vaginal orgasm without any scientiﬁc basis. For years, it has been assumed that the female orgasm is due to the female erectile organs
(Masters and Johnson, 1966; Hite, 1981; Laqueur,
1992; Puppo et al., 2008a; Puppo, 2011a, 2011c).
In the last few decades, in sexology and in sexual
medicine (Goldstein, 2000; Goldstein et al., 2006;
Komisaruk et al., 2006; San Diego Sexual Medicine,
2012), the lack of concrete knowledge about the
female erectile organs (triggers of orgasm) has led
Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
to the development of many concepts about female
sexuality, such as: the clitoral system, ‘‘the vagina is a singularly female possession . . . hence the main
body of the vagina would not have a vestigial counterpart in the male’’ (Sherfey, 1973), the clitoral
Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article.
*Correspondence to: Vincenzo Puppo, Via Pistoiese 301/6, 50145 Florence, Italy. E-mail: email@example.com
Received 21 July 2012; Accepted 10 September 2012
Published online 21 November 2012 in Wiley Online Library
(wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI 10.1002/ca.22177
Female Erectile Organs and the Female Orgasm
(i.e., clitoris-urethra-distal vagina) complex, the clitoral bulbs, the internal clitoris, the clitoris composed of two arcs, the clitoris root made of two clitoral bodies
and two clitoral bulbs, vaginal penetration causes
close contact between the inner clitoris and the distal
anterior vaginal wall, the Grafenberg spot (i.e.
G-spot), the G-spot represents that part of the urethra
that contains the periglandular or paraurethral tissue,
the genitosensory component of the vagus nerve, Halban’s fascia erogenous zone, the periurethral glans, the vaginal anterior fornix erogenous zone, female
ejaculation, the anterior...
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