Organizational BehaviorTopic 3Motivation And Job DesignAnnouncements

Topics: Job satisfaction, Motivation, Organizational studies and human resource management Pages: 40 (1631 words) Published: December 4, 2014
Organizational Behavior
Topic 3
Motivation and job design

Announcements
• Mid term exam






20% of your grade.
Same for both streams.
The event takes place on Thursday, Oct 30th: 3:30-5:15.
Written, closed-book, individual test.
10 multiple choice questions (10 points) + 1 essay-like
question (10 points).
– (Joint) feedback session on Oct 31st at 1.30.
– (Regular) recitation session during Week 6

2

Questions about the midterm exam?
• Selection of questions from prior years:
– Do I have to read the readings?
– What pages do I have to read?
– What If I cannot make it, for example what if I miss the bus or if I have an accident?
– I have to be at a marriage (not my own/my own)
– What do I have to do? (question typically asked directly to me around 2am at night the day of the exam)
– ....

3

Example of a multiple choice question
Which one among the following factors does
not enter directly in the determination of the
Motivating Potential Score of a job:
A Skill variety
B Individual autonomy

C Job satisfaction
D Task significance

Example of an essay-question

“Discuss the conditions that make organizations more
efficient than markets as mechanisms for minimizing the
cost of economic transactions (hint: start by defining
transaction costs)”

Questions we asked so far
• Why do organizations exist and what for?
• The transaction-cost view

• How do we align economic incentives within
organizations?
– Motivation and the problem of agency

• How does motivation drive individual performance?
– Content theories of motivation
– Process theories of motivation

• What drives task performance?
– How what we do may motivate us? Job design
6

General recap on motivation
• Understanding what motivates workers is important
– Need-based/content theories of motivation

• Equally important is to understand how workers can be motivated – Process theories of motivation

• We have seen that equity (fairness) may be a strong motivational factor. When fairness is questioned collaboration and exchange become fraught with difficulties. Hence organized collective action becomes almost impossible

– Equity theories of motivation

• We have seen that motivation depends on expectations that individuals might hold about :
– (i) the relation between the results that they can achieve and the level of effort that they expect to produce;
– (ii) the relation between the result they obtain and the rewards that they expect to receive, and
– (iii) the personal value of the reward promised
– Expectancy theories of motivation

Topic 4 (Motivation and Job design):
Themes and objectives
• How can your job motivate you?






Job design in historical perspective
Job design and motivation
The job characteristics model of Hackman and Oldham;
The Job Diagnostic Survey
Motivating potential score of jobs

• Beyond individual motivation: Teams
– Introduction to teams
– The survival exercise
8

Topic 3 (Motivation and job design):
Key learning points
• Job characteristics may affect motivation;
• Job characteristics may affect task performance;
• The extent to which a job is potentially motivating can be measured and hence be the object of managerial
intervention;
• Job enlargement, enrichment, rotation are managerial
strategies that may be implemented to redesign core
characteristics of jobs that may be linked to task
performance;
• Job characteristics interact with individual needs, skills and organizational context.
9

A change in perspective
• So far we have asked:
– What motivates you (and how) to take a job?
• Now we ask:
– How does your job motivate or – as the case may
well be – fail to motivate you?
• But in what sense can jobs affect workers’
motivation? This is the question that job design is
trying to address
10

How do these two jobs differ?

11

What is job design?
Job design
– The process by which...
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