Motivation and job design
• Mid term exam
20% of your grade.
Same for both streams.
The event takes place on Thursday, Oct 30th: 3:30-5:15.
Written, closed-book, individual test.
10 multiple choice questions (10 points) + 1 essay-like
question (10 points).
– (Joint) feedback session on Oct 31st at 1.30.
– (Regular) recitation session during Week 6
Questions about the midterm exam?
• Selection of questions from prior years:
– Do I have to read the readings?
– What pages do I have to read?
– What If I cannot make it, for example what if I miss the bus or if I have an accident?
– I have to be at a marriage (not my own/my own)
– What do I have to do? (question typically asked directly to me around 2am at night the day of the exam)
Example of a multiple choice question
Which one among the following factors does
not enter directly in the determination of the
Motivating Potential Score of a job:
A Skill variety
B Individual autonomy
C Job satisfaction
D Task significance
Example of an essay-question
“Discuss the conditions that make organizations more
efficient than markets as mechanisms for minimizing the
cost of economic transactions (hint: start by defining
Questions we asked so far
• Why do organizations exist and what for?
• The transaction-cost view
• How do we align economic incentives within
– Motivation and the problem of agency
• How does motivation drive individual performance?
– Content theories of motivation
– Process theories of motivation
• What drives task performance?
– How what we do may motivate us? Job design
General recap on motivation
• Understanding what motivates workers is important
– Need-based/content theories of motivation
• Equally important is to understand how workers can be motivated – Process theories of motivation
• We have seen that equity (fairness) may be a strong motivational factor. When fairness is questioned collaboration and exchange become fraught with difficulties. Hence organized collective action becomes almost impossible
– Equity theories of motivation
• We have seen that motivation depends on expectations that individuals might hold about :
– (i) the relation between the results that they can achieve and the level of effort that they expect to produce;
– (ii) the relation between the result they obtain and the rewards that they expect to receive, and
– (iii) the personal value of the reward promised
– Expectancy theories of motivation
Topic 4 (Motivation and Job design):
Themes and objectives
• How can your job motivate you?
Job design in historical perspective
Job design and motivation
The job characteristics model of Hackman and Oldham;
The Job Diagnostic Survey
Motivating potential score of jobs
• Beyond individual motivation: Teams
– Introduction to teams
– The survival exercise
Topic 3 (Motivation and job design):
Key learning points
• Job characteristics may affect motivation;
• Job characteristics may affect task performance;
• The extent to which a job is potentially motivating can be measured and hence be the object of managerial
• Job enlargement, enrichment, rotation are managerial
strategies that may be implemented to redesign core
characteristics of jobs that may be linked to task
• Job characteristics interact with individual needs, skills and organizational context.
A change in perspective
• So far we have asked:
– What motivates you (and how) to take a job?
• Now we ask:
– How does your job motivate or – as the case may
well be – fail to motivate you?
• But in what sense can jobs affect workers’
motivation? This is the question that job design is
trying to address
How do these two jobs differ?
What is job design?
– The process by which...
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