Organizational Behavior and Design Chapter 2 – Individual Behavior, Values & Personality MARS Model of Individual Behavior & Results (Pg 34) - Employee engagement covers all four MARS driven indv behavior and results - M (Motivation), A (Ability), R (Role Perceptions) and S (Situational Factors) have combined effect on individual performance o If any factor weakens, employee performance will decrease -  Personality,  values,  individual perceptions and learning,  emotions and attitudes and  stress influence M, A, R and S o  Personality and  values are most stable characteristics o  Emotions and attitudes and  stress are most fluid characteristics o  Individual perceptions and learning lie somewhere between - Employee Motivation (Forces within person affecting  direction,  intensity and  persistence of voluntary behavior) o Direction refers to fact that motivation is goal-oriented, not random o Intensity is amount of effort allocated to goal o Persistence refers to continuing effort for certain amount of time - Ability (Both  natural aptitudes and  learned capabilities required to successfully complete task) o Aptitudes are natural talents helping employees learn specific tasks more quickly and perform them better eg being able to manipulate small objects better o Learned capabilities refer to skills and knowledge acquired. Physical and mental skills possessed ot required for later use. o Employee Competencies (Skills, knowledge, aptitudes and other characteristics of people leading to superior performance) Problem 1 - Disagreement whether competencies should include personal values and personality traits Problem 2 - Some companies describe competencies so broadly that they are difficult to measure or understand Problem 3 - Most firms try to identify single cluster of competencies, but researchers increasingly believe alternative combinations of competencies may be equally successful o Person-Job Matching Method 1 – Select applicants whose existing competencies best fit required tasks (Compare their requirements with the job unit) Method 2 – Provide training so employees develop required skills and knowledge Method 3 – Redesign job so employees are only given tasks within capabilities - Role Perceptions (Possesses RP in 3 ways:  understands the specific tasks assigned,  understand the relative importance of the task and  understands preferred behaviors to accomplish those tasks) o Organizations improve role perceptions by  ensuring clear job descriptions,  ongoing coaching and  showing how goals relate of organizational goals o Employees clarify role perceptions by  working together over time and  receiving frequent and meaningful performance feedback o Results: ore engage to their work because they know where to direct their effort 1
Organizational Behavior and Design Situational Factors o Situational factors are factors beyond employee’s and organization’s control that constrain or facilitate their behavior and performance o Beyond control/External situations:  consumer preferences and  economic conditions o Controlled by people in organization are  time,  people,  budget and  physical work facilities o Corporate leaders need to carefully arrange these so employees can achieve max potential
Types of Individual Behavior in Organizations (Pg 38) - Task Performance (Goal-directed behaviors under individual’s control that support organizational objectives) o Include  physical behaviors and  mental processes leading to behaviors - Exhibiting Organizational Citizenship (Behaviors that extend beyond employee’s normal job duties) o Include  helping others without selfish intent,  being actively involved in organizational activities,  avoiding unnecessary conflicts,  performing tasks beyond normal role requirements and  gracefully tolerating impositions - Counterproductive Work Behaviors (CWBs) (Voluntary...
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