Organismal Biology Study Guide

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Organismal Biology Study Guide for Test # 4 (4 MAY 2005 – Wed)

Chapter 34 – Section F – Primates and the Evolution of Homo sapiens

Opposable thumb – in primates; but fully opposable only in anthropoid primates
Prosimians – example – lemurs
Anthropoidea (anthropoids) – includes moneys, apes, humans
Brachiating – swinging through the trees by the arms
Overlapping fields of vision (3-D) – advantage for brachiating
Old World vs New World monkeys – differences and similarities
Know 4 genera of of apes
Paleoanthropology – definition
Hominoid = refers to great apes and humans collectively
Hominid – more narrow meaning; confined to those twigs of the evolutionary tree that are more colosed related to us than any other species

2 groups of honidis – australopithecines (now extinct) and members of genus Homo

Be able to explain misconceptions about human and chimp evolution

Human evolution marked by the evolution of : brain size, jaw shape (prognathic jaws), bipedal posture, reduced size differences between sexes

Be able to explain key changes in family structure

“Lucy” kind of fossil, where found, and characteristics

Homo habilis – earliest fossils placed in our genus

“Turkana Boy” age, characteristics

Homo erectus – age, characteristics – first hominid species to migrate out of Africa (Bejing Man, Java Man)

Neanderthal – know about them

“Out of Africa” or replacement hypothesis – how it is supported, what it is

Chapter 50 – An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere

Section A – The Scope of Ecology

Ecology – definition
Abiotics vs biotic factors
Ecological time vs evolutionary time
Organismal biology
Organism – population – community – ecosystem
Community ecology
Ecosystem ecology
Landscape ecology
Rachel Carson – DDT – wrote book “Silent Spring” – know her story

Section B1 – Factors Affecting the Distribution of Organisms

Global patterns in distribution of organisms (know names and locations of

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