Organisational Behavior

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1. What is Organizational Citizenship?

There are 4 perspectives that makes companies effective and efficient consisting of open systems, organizational learning, stakeholders and high-performance work practices. However, despite these perspectives, work-related employee behavior also has a deep influence on organizational effectiveness, there are certain behaviors that employees have to adopt to reach this level of effectiveness. These behaviors consist of task performance, counterproductive work behaviors, acquiring and retaining employees within an organization, work attendance and lastly, organizational citizenship. In this essay, I will be going through certain organizational citizenship behaviors and job related outcomes as well as explaining how these behaviors lead to organizational performance.

First of all, if employees only performed their formal job duties, companies will not be able to effectively compete, transform resources or match the needs of their stakeholders. Organizational citizenship refers to an organizations ability and responsibility to create business opportunities and values by caring for all the employees. It is the behaviors that extend beyond the employee’s job roles and duties. “Competitive organizations focus on hiring and retaining employees who are helpful, engaged, and cooperative, often beyond the call of duty” (Katz, 1964).

2. Explain the various types of organizational citizenship behaviors and the various types of job-related outcomes.

Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is a term that encompasses anything positive and constructive that employees do, of their own volition, which supports co-workers and benefits the company. Employees who engage in OCB tend to “go the extra mile” above the minimum efforts required to do a merely satisfactory job and can be referred to as the “individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and in the aggregate

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