1. What is Organizational Citizenship?
There are 4 perspectives that makes companies effective and efficient consisting of open systems, organizational learning, stakeholders and high-performance work practices. However, despite these perspectives, work-related employee behavior also has a deep influence on organizational effectiveness, there are certain behaviors that employees have to adopt to reach this level of effectiveness. These behaviors consist of task performance, counterproductive work behaviors, acquiring and retaining employees within an organization, work attendance and lastly, organizational citizenship. In this essay, I will be going through certain organizational citizenship behaviors and job related outcomes as well as explaining how these behaviors lead to organizational performance.
First of all, if employees only performed their formal job duties, companies will not be able to effectively compete, transform resources or match the needs of their stakeholders. Organizational citizenship refers to an organizations ability and responsibility to create business opportunities and values by caring for all the employees. It is the behaviors that extend beyond the employee’s job roles and duties. “Competitive organizations focus on hiring and retaining employees who are helpful, engaged, and cooperative, often beyond the call of duty” (Katz, 1964).
2. Explain the various types of organizational citizenship behaviors and the various types of job-related outcomes.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is a term that encompasses anything positive and constructive that employees do, of their own volition, which supports co-workers and benefits the company. Employees who engage in OCB tend to “go the extra mile” above the minimum efforts required to do a merely satisfactory job and can be referred to as the “individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective functioning of the organization” (Organ, Podsakoff, & MacKenzie, 2006: 3). It therefore can represent the employees’ mutual understanding regarding the level of citizenship behavior that should occur in an organization.
These behaviors can come in various forms such as helpfulness and cooperation between those that support the organization’s psychological and social context. In this essence, companies require contextual performance along with task performance. There are two dimensions developed by Smith, Organ and Near (1983): (1) altruism (helping specific persons) and (2) generalized compliance to the organization (doing what a good employee should do).
There are two levels of OCB’s, which are at the group, and individual level. “Group-level OCB regulates social interaction and influences social identity” (Ehrhart et al., 2006) and is more regularly reinforced because of each team members’ shared understanding and expectations.
Individual-level OCB is represented by a series of isolated incidents of helping behavior directed towards individuals, like assisting coworkers with their work problems, showing general courtesy towards them as well as sharing work resources such as supplies, staff or technology. Other forms of OCB can be in the representation of supporting the company’s public image, offering ideas beyond those required for normal job duties, keeping up with new developments in the organization, offering to help a newcomer become familiar with their role, a colleague who might be struggling with deadlines, volunteering to exchange shifts as well as attending voluntary functions that support the organization.
In many circumstances, employees that engage in organizational citizenship will go beyond their own interests to support the wellbeing of the organization and others and these can lead to various types of job-related outcomes.
One of the job-related outcomes as a result of certain OCB’s is job...
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