1.Which of the following is an appropriate use for dietary reference intakes (DRI)? a.ensuring that maximum nutrient requirements are met
b.estimating the nutrient needs of persons with medical problems c.planning diets for population groups such as military personnel d.estimating the inadequacy of an individual’s nutrient intake
2.Which of the following standards establishes population-wide average requirements used by nutrition policymakers? a.Daily Values (DV)
b.Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
c.Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA)
d.Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)
3.Which of the following statements about the dietary reference intakes (DRI) is the most accurate? a.They are for healthy individuals.
b.They are based on review of available testimonials.
c.They are published by a committee composed of dietitians. d.They are maximum requirements, not recommendations.
4.For which of the following reasons would a nutrient NOT have a tolerable upper intake level (UL)? a.No food contains toxic levels of nutrients.
b.Insufficient data exist to establish a value.
c.No caution is required when consuming supplements of that nutrient. d.It is safe to consume in any amount.
5.Which of the following statements about Daily Values (DV) is the most accurate? a.They apply to healthy people only.
b.They are the best way to compare the nutritional content of different foods. c.They are not yet required on Canadian nutrition labels.
d.They are useful as nutrient intake goals for individuals.
6.Which of the following recommendations with regard to oils and fats does the most recent version of Canada’s Food Guide make? a.Do not consume butter, lard, or shortening.
b.Include at least 3 to 4 tbs (45 to 60 mL) daily.
c.Choose soft margarines that are low in saturated fats and trans fats. d.Use vegetable oils such as coconut, olive, and palm kernel.
7.Which of the following food groups is located along the innermost arc of the rainbow depiction on the cover of Canada’s Food Guide? a.meats and alternatives
b.milk and alternatives
c.vegetables and fruits
8.For which of the following elements of diet planning are exchange systems most useful? a.portion control
9.Which of the following is a key nutrient or other food component typically found in vegetables and fruits? a.vitamin B12
10.According to Canada’s Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living, how long should individuals exercise each day? a.at least 50 minutes
b.at least 40 minutes
c.at least 30 minutes
d.at least 20 minutes
11.Which of the following statements about the discretionary calorie allowance is true? a.The added fat absorbed by the batter in fried chicken contributes to discretionary calories. b.It may be spent on foods composed primarily of water.
c.It is not affected by physical activity level.
d.It may not be spent on added sugars.
12.What percentage range of protein in the diet provides adequate energy nutrients for healthy individuals while reducing the risk of chronic diseases? a.10–35%
13.According to Canada’s Food Guide, which of the following is one serving? a.1 egg
b.15 mL peanut butter
c.30 g cooked fish
d.175 mL cooked legumes
14.Which of the following classes of lipids must be listed on food labels? a.monounsaturated fat
d.conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)
15.How many grams of fibre must a food contain for it to be considered a “very high source” of fibre? a.2 grams or more
b.4 grams or more
c.6 grams or more
d.8 grams of more
16.Dietary reference intakes (DRI) are defined in order to achieve which of the following goals? a.restoration of health
b.repletion of nutrients in individuals with deficiencies
c.maximum margin of safety levels
17.The appropriate Daily Values for fat, saturated, and trans fatty acids, carbohydrates, fibre, sodium, and potassium are based on the Institute of Medicine Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) report for a diet of how many kilocalories? a.1,500
18.The Canadian Reference Standard for the %DV of calcium is 1,100 mg. One cup (250 mL) of 2% milk contains about 300 mg of calcium. What is the %DV for this one cup of milk? a.20%
19.According to the dietary reference intakes (DRI) committee, a diet should contain what percentage of its calories from carbohydrate? a.10–35
20.As a result of the basic assumptions made by the dietary reference intakes (DRI) committee, their DRI recommendations would apply to which of the following individuals? a.Cindy, a 21-year-old college athlete
b.Harry, a 35-year-old businessman with Type 1 diabetes
c.Robert, a 20-year-old with cystic fibrosis
d.Joann, a 35-year-old female vegetarian who smokes
21.George is a 35-year-old athlete using nutrient supplements to give him a competitive advantage. Why would you suggest that George become familiar with tolerable upper intake levels (UL)? a.so that he does not need to use supplements
b.so that he does not risk illness from nutrient toxicity
c.so that he maximizes his athletic performance
d.so that he does not become deficient in a specific nutrient deemed important for athletes
22.You are speaking to a group of consumers about ways to use food labels to choose healthy foods in the grocery store. Which of the following points would you emphasize during your presentation? a.understanding the %DV are based on a 3,000-calorie diet
b.using the grams and numbers on the labels to calculate percentages c.comparing the number of food additives in a product
d.understanding the descriptive terms used on food labels
23.Which of the following recommendations for men and women over 50 does the most recent Canada’s Food Guide make? a.They should consume 10 glasses of water every day.
b.They should take a daily Vitamin B6 supplement.
c.They should take Vitamin B12 supplements.
d.They should take a daily Vitamin D supplement of 400 IUs.
24.The Nutrition Facts panel on a food label lists the following information for amounts per serving: 111 calories; 23 calories from fat. What percentage of the calories are provided by fat? a.11%
25.Which of the following is the best and safest source of phytochemicals? a.supplements
26.Which of the following phytochemicals is contained in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices, teas, and red wine? a.lignans
27.Which of the following conditions do Asian people develop more often than people in the West? a.osteoporosis
c.symptoms related to menopause
28.Which of the following foods is one of the best sources of lycopene? a.garlic
29.What is the name given to the type of laboratory study in which a person is fed a controlled diet, and the intake and excretion of a nutrient is measured? a.nutrient study
b.nutrition requirement study
30.What is the name given to the type of diet planning tool that sorts foods into groups based on their nutrient content? a.exchange system
b.food group plan
c.group system design plan
d.eating guide system
31.Nutrition amounts and percentages of Daily Values for what number of core nutrients must be listed on the Nutrition Facts panel on a food label? a.10
32.The nutrient content of most foods is listed on the label as percentages of the Daily Values. Which of the following nutrients is expressed as a percentage of the Daily Value? a.magnesium
33.What is the name for the type of fat in butter, milk, and other dairy products believed by some to have biological activity in the body? a.omega 12 fatty acid
b.essential fatty acid
c.miso fatty acid
d.conjugated linoleic acid
34.What is the name of the phytochemical contained in black-eyed peas, grapes, lentils, and wine that may inhibit carcinogen activation and cancer promotion? a.organosulfur compounds
35.What is the name of the compound contained in flaxseed that is converted into biologically active phytoestrogens by bacteria in the human intestine? a.lignans
36.Which of the following is the name of a liquid yogurt beverage? a.keratin
1.Recommendations for vitamins and minerals, carbohydrates, fibre, liquids, proteins, and energy have been published by the dietary reference intakes (DRI) committee.
2.Getting 100 percent of the dietary reference intakes (DRI) for every nutrient ensures adequate intake.
3.The primary difference between recommendations for nutrient intakes and values set for energy intake is that the value for energy intake is not generous.
4.Nutrient contents of packaged foods are stated on food labels as “Daily Values.”
5.Many standards published by international and national groups are similar to the dietary reference intakes (DRI).
6.The absence of a tolerable upper intake level (UL) for a nutrient implies that it is safe to consume in any amount.
1.Describe how the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Committee establishes DRI values.
The first step will be to find out how much of a nutrient that various healthy individuals need. Then the most valid data for use in the work is selected. Different individuals will have different requirements even though they may be of the same age or gender. To set the value, the committee must decide what intake to recommend for everybody. The final decision is to set the value high enough so that 97 to 98 percent of the population will be covered, but not so high as to be excessive.
2.Differentiate between the methods used in setting the recommended intake for nutrients versus the recommended energy intake values.
Question 1 short answer responds to the DRI nutrient recommendations. As for the recommended energy intake values, or EER (Estimated Energy Requirement), they are set at the average energy intake level predicted to maintain body weight for an individual of a particular age, gender, height, weight, and physical activity level consistent with good health.
3.Describe characteristics of the Daily Values listed on food labels and how they should be used in diet planning.
The percent Daily Values (%DV) reflect the needs of an "average" person – someone eating 2,000 to 2,500 calories daily. The purpose of having a %DV is to show whether the food has a "lot" or a "little" of a nutrient in a stated amount of food. The Daily Values are ideal for allowing comparisons among foods. Because the Daily Values apply to all people, they are much less useful as nutrient intake goals for individuals.
4.Identify the specific advantages of exchange systems.
Exchange systems can be useful to careful diet planners, especially those wishing to control calories, those who must control carbohydrate intakes, and those who should control their intakes of fat and saturated fat. An exchange system may list the estimated carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, and protein contents of food portions, as well as their calorie values. With these estimates, exchange system users can make an educated approximation of the nutrients and calories in almost any food they might encounter.
5.List the food groups in Canada’s Food Guide and give an example of a nutrient-dense food from each group.
Vegetables and Fruit: broccoliGrains: whole wheat breadMilk and Alternatives: yogurtMeat and Alternatives: skinless chicken breast
6.Explain the concept of the discretionary calorie allowance, and describe ways this allowance may be “spent.”
The discretionary calorie allowance is the balance of calories remaining in a person's energy allowance after accounting for the number of calories needed to meet nutrient intakes through consumption of nutrient-dense foods. A person with a discretionary calorie allowance to spend may choose to consume the following, within the limits of the allowance:1. Extra servings of the same nutrient-dense foods that make up the base of the diet.2. Fats from two sources.3. Added sugars, such as jams, colas, and honey.4. Alcohol, within limits.5. Omit the discretionary calories from the diet. This is a safe strategy because discretionary calories are not essential for delivering needed nutrients to the diet.
7.Defend the statement that foods, not supplements, are the best and safest source of phytochemicals.
A moderate approach to the usage of phytochemicals and functional foods is warranted. People who eat the recommended amounts of a variety of fruit and vegetables may cut their risk of many diseases by as much as half. Replacing some meat with soy foods or other legumes may also lower heart disease and cancer risks. In the context of a healthy diet, foods are time-tested for safety, posing virtually no risk of toxic levels of nutrients or phytochemicals. Beneficial constituents are widespread among foods. Don't try to single out one phytochemical for its magical health effect. Instead, take a no-nonsense approach where your health is concerned: choose a wide variety of whole grains, legumes, fruit and vegetables in the context of an adequate, balanced, and varied diet, and receive all of the health benefits that these foods offer.