From Novice to Expert
Patricia E. Benner
This page was last updated on September 16, 2011
•Dr Patricia Benner introduced the concept that expert nurses develop skills and understanding of patient care over time through a sound educational base as well as a multitude of experiences.
•She proposed that one could gain knowledge and skills ("knowing how") without ever learning the theory ("knowing that").
•She further explains that the development of knowledge in applied disciplines such as medicine and nursing is composed of the extension of practical knowledge (know how) through research and the characterization and understanding of the "know how" of clinical experience.
•She coneptualizes in her writing about nursing skills as experience is a prerequisite for becoming an expert. ABOUT THE THEORIST
•Patricia E. Benner, R.N., Ph.D., FAAN is a Professor Emerita at the University of California, San Francisco. •BA in Nursing - Pasadena College/Point Loma College
•MS in Med/Surg nursing from UCSF
•PhD -1982 from UC Berkeley
•1970s - Research at UCSF and UC Berkeley
•Has taught and done research at UCSF since 1979
•Published 9 books and numerous articles
•Published ‘Novice to Expert Theory’ in 1982
•Received Book of the Year from AJN in 1984,1990,1996, 2000 •Her web address is at: http://www.PatriciaBenner.com
•Her profile can be obtained at http://nurseweb.ucsf.edu/www/ix-fd.shtml LEVELS OF NURSING EXPERIENCE
She described 5 levels of nursing experience as;
•Beginner with no experience
•Taught general rules to help perform tasks
•Rules are: context-free, independent of specific cases, and applied universally •Rule-governed behavior is limited and inflexible
•Ex. “Tell me what I need to do and I’ll do it.”
•Demonstrates acceptable performance
•Has gained prior experience in actual situations to recognize...
References: 1.Dracup and Bryan-Brown. From Novice to Expert to Mentor Shaping the Future - American Journal of Critical Care. 2004;13: 448-450.
2.Jane Corrigan Wandel. The Institute for Nursing Healthcare Leadership Conference: Reflections on the Impact of Patricia Benner 's Work. Medscape Nurses. 2003;5(2). Accessed on 5-04-2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462607
1.Benner, P. (1982). From novice to expert.American Journal of Nursing, 82(3), 402-407
2.Benner, P., & Wrubel, J. (1982a). Skilled clinical knowledge: The value of perceptual awareness. Part 1.Journal of Nursing Administration, 12(5), 11-14.
3.Benner, P., & Wrubel, J. (1982b). Skilled clinical knowledge: The value of perceptualawareness. Part 2.Journal of Nursing Administration, 12(6), 28-33.
4.Benner, P. (1984). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursingpractice. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley.
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