Carper's Patterns of Knowing
Carper described empirical knowledge as the framework; based off “observation, testing, and replication of knowledge”, giving the foundation for research and evidence (Cody & Kennedy, 2006). I am currently obtaining information that is unique to my current area of practice, which will ultimately add to my current foundation of knowledge. In general I believe that we as nurses use all the forms of knowing within our practices, it just depends on the advancement of your education and knowledge regarding which pattern one currently uses.
When it comes to comparing Carpers theory to Schultz and Meleis; Schultz and Meleis incorporate a more in-depth approach to the four fundamental patterns of nursing knowledge that Carper introduced. Mantzorou & Mastrogiannis (2011) research showed that with the empirical knowledge there has been an overall increase in patient satisfaction. Without the empiric (stable structure) foundation, nothing will stand. You will lose bits and pieces (of the other patterns of knowing) if