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# Nuclear Weapons

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Topics: Gender, Female, Male, Sex, Gamete, Logic
Functional programming
Ex.
C++. #include <iostream> // Fibonacci numbers, imperative style int fibonacci(int iterations) { int first = 0, second = 1; // seed values for (int i = 0; i < iterations; ++i) { int sum = first + second; first = second; second = sum; } return first; } int main() { std::cout << fibonacci(10) << "\n"; return 0; }

A functional version (in Haskell) has a different feel to it: -- Fibonacci numbers, functional style -- describe an infinite list based on the recurrence relation for Fibonacci numbers fibRecurrence first second = first : fibRecurrence second (first + second) -- describe fibonacci list as fibRecurrence with initial values 0 and 1 fibonacci = fibRecurrence 0 1 -- describe action to print the 10th element of the fibonacci list main = print (fibonacci !!

Logic Programming ------------------------------------------------- {-
-------------------------------------------------
Problem:
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- There is a tribe where all the Male members speak true statements and Female
-------------------------------------------------
members never speak two true statements in a row, nor two untrue statements in
-------------------------------------------------
a row. (I apologize for the obvious misogyny).
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- A researcher comes across a mother, a father, and their child. The mother and
-------------------------------------------------
father speak English but the child does not. However, the researcher asks the
-------------------------------------------------
child "Are you a boy?". The child responds but the researcher doesn't
-------------------------------------------------
understand the response and turns to the parents for a translation.
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- Parent 1: "The child said 'I am a boy.'"
-------------------------------------------------
Parent 2: "The child is a girl. The child lied."
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- What is the sex of parent 1, parent 2, the child, and what sex did the child
-------------------------------------------------
say they were?
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- Bonus:
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- There is a unique solution for heterosexual, gay, and lesbian couples. Find
-------------------------------------------------
all three solutions.
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- Solution:
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- Run the code :)
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- Approach:
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- Use the monadic properties of lists to setup some basic logic programming.
-------------------------------------------------
There are four variables in the puzzle: Sex of parent 1, Sex of parent 2, Sex
-------------------------------------------------
of the child, and the Sex the child said they were. Each of these has two
-------------------------------------------------
possibilities, which means we've got 2^4 == 16 possible outcomes.
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- Using List Monads we can realize all 2^4 outcomes in a straightforward
-------------------------------------------------
fashion. Then it is just a matter of testing each combination to make sure it
-------------------------------------------------
fits the constraints of the puzzle.
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- We have two axioms:
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- 1. A Male does not lie.
-------------------------------------------------
2. A Female will never tell two lies or two truths in a row.
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- And we have three statements (i.e. logical expressions) in the puzzle:
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- 1. The child said a single statement, in which they declared their sex.
-------------------------------------------------
2. Parent 1 said a single statement: "The child said 'I am a a boy'"
-------------------------------------------------
3. Parent 2 said two statements: "The child is a girl. The child lied."
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- Each of those three statements is realized as a function. These functions do
-------------------------------------------------
not test the truth of the statement but rather test its logical validity in
-------------------------------------------------
the face of the axioms.
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- For example, if the Child is Male then it is not possible the child said they
-------------------------------------------------
were Female since that would violate axiom 1. Similarly if the Child is Female
-------------------------------------------------
then no matter if they lied or told the truth the statement is valid in the
-------------------------------------------------
face of the axioms, this is an example of the truth of statement differing
-------------------------------------------------
from its logical validity.
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- -}
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- -- People are either Male or Female, this represents the constraints of the puzzle.
-------------------------------------------------
data Sex = Male | Female deriving (Eq, Show)
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- -- When creating an answer we stuff it into this data structure
-------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------
parent1 :: Sex,
-------------------------------------------------
parent2 :: Sex,
-------------------------------------------------
child :: Sex,
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child_desc :: Sex
-------------------------------------------------
}
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- -- This lets us print out the data structure in a friendly way
-------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------
show pa = "Parent1 is " ++ (show \$ parent1 pa) ++ "\n" ++
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"Parent2 is " ++ (show \$ parent2 pa) ++ "\n" ++
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"The child is " ++ (show \$ child pa) ++ "\n" ++
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"The child said they were " ++ (show \$ child_desc pa) ++ "\n"
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- {-
-------------------------------------------------
childs_statement_is_valid(child_sex, child_described_sex)
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- The only combination that violates the axioms is (Male, Female) since a Male
-------------------------------------------------
does not lie. Obviously (Male, Male) and (Female, *) are valid statements.
-------------------------------------------------
-}
-------------------------------------------------
childs_statement_is_valid :: Sex -> Sex -> Bool
-------------------------------------------------
childs_statement_is_valid Male Female = False
-------------------------------------------------
childs_statement_is_valid _ _ = True
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- {-
-------------------------------------------------
parent1_statement_is_valid(parent1_sex, child_described_sex)
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- Parent 1 said "The child said 'I am a boy'". The only invalid combination is
-------------------------------------------------
(Male, Female), because that'd imply a Male (the parent) lied. Obviously
-------------------------------------------------
(Male, Male) is okay because then parent 1 is telling the truth. (Female, *)
-------------------------------------------------
is dubious because you can't trust a Female.
-------------------------------------------------
-}
-------------------------------------------------
parent1_statement_is_valid :: Sex -> Sex -> Bool
-------------------------------------------------
parent1_statement_is_valid Male Female = False
-------------------------------------------------
parent1_statement_is_valid _ _ = True
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- {-
-------------------------------------------------
parent2_statement_is_valid(parent1_sex, child_sex, child_described_sex)
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- Parent 2 said "The child is a girl. The child lied." If Parent 2 is Male
-------------------------------------------------
then the only way this can be a legal statement is if the chlid is Female and
-------------------------------------------------
said they were Male. This would mean the child is in fact a girl and the
-------------------------------------------------
child did in fact lie, two statements which are both true. This corresponds
-------------------------------------------------
to (Male, Female, Male) being legal.
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- If Parent2 is Female then (Female, *, Female) are both true. (Female, Male,
-------------------------------------------------
Female) is true because the first statement is false (the child is a girl) but
-------------------------------------------------
the second one is true (the child lied -- it said Female when it was Male).
-------------------------------------------------
(Female, Female, Female) is also legal since the first statement (the child is
-------------------------------------------------
a girl) is true but the second one is a lie (the child lied -- the child said
-------------------------------------------------
they were Female and they are Female).
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- Any other combination will be illegal.
-------------------------------------------------
-}
-------------------------------------------------
parent2_statement_is_valid :: Sex -> Sex -> Sex -> Bool
-------------------------------------------------
parent2_statement_is_valid Male Female Male = True
-------------------------------------------------
parent2_statement_is_valid Female _ Female = True
-------------------------------------------------
parent2_statement_is_valid _ _ _ = False
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- {-
-------------------------------------------------
Here we use the List Monad to declare the four variables, each ranging over
-------------------------------------------------
the set [Male, Female]. The List Monad transparently constructs all 2^4
-------------------------------------------------
possibilities. The guard statements discard statements that are invalid. We
-------------------------------------------------
have four guards, the three described above and an additional guard that
-------------------------------------------------
asserts the parents are not the same sex.
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- The result is a list of tuples listing all possible solutions. There happens
-------------------------------------------------
to be only one, if there was more than one than the other legal ones would be
-------------------------------------------------
returned too.
-------------------------------------------------
-}
-------------------------------------------------
solve_puzzle :: (Sex -> Sex -> Bool) -> [PuzzleAnswer]
-------------------------------------------------
solve_puzzle sexuality_pred = do
-------------------------------------------------
parent1 <- [Male, Female]
-------------------------------------------------
parent2 <- [Male, Female]
-------------------------------------------------
child <- [Male, Female]
-------------------------------------------------
child_desc <- [Male, Female]
-------------------------------------------------
guard \$ sexuality_pred parent1 parent2
-------------------------------------------------
guard \$ childs_statement_is_valid child child_desc
-------------------------------------------------
guard \$ parent1_statement_is_valid parent1 child_desc
-------------------------------------------------
guard \$ parent2_statement_is_valid parent2 child child_desc
-------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------
parent1=parent1,
-------------------------------------------------
parent2=parent2,
-------------------------------------------------
child=child,
-------------------------------------------------
child_desc=child_desc
-------------------------------------------------
}
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- -- Run the program. We use mapM because we're applying a print in Monadic
-------------------------------------------------
-- setting. We use any kind of map because it's possible (due to poor coding)
-------------------------------------------------
-- that the solution could have more than one answer.
-------------------------------------------------
main = do
-------------------------------------------------
putStrLn "----------- Hetrosexual Couple -----------"
-------------------------------------------------
mapM_ print (solve_puzzle (/=))
-------------------------------------------------
putStrLn "----------- Gay Couple -----------"
-------------------------------------------------
mapM_ print (solve_puzzle (\x y -> x == y && x == Male))
-------------------------------------------------
putStrLn "----------- Lesbian Couple -----------"
-------------------------------------------------
mapM_ print (solve_puzzle (\x y -> x == y && x == Female))

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