Nigeria is a multi-ethnic nation with various cultural groups that are about three hundred in number. In 1947, Nigeria was not yet a nation. Nigeria now has been a multi-national society, one of the sociological problems of building Nigeria as a nation is multi-ethnicity with its concomitants such as multilingualism and completive ethnicity. There were varieties of lines which existed between the various states and people which were the predecessors of modern Nigeria.
But on the other side, Ethnographers estimates that, there are over 250 ethnic groups make up Nigeria. Each of these ethnic groups consists of smaller social groups for example Yoruba consists of the Ekiti, Ijesha, Oyo etc. The Housa have their various indigenous states but none of these groups however was large before the colonial government that now decided to join them together in the year 1914 and later Balkanized Nigeria into three regions in 1914 along ethnic lines.
There have been cases of multi-ethnic vices such as allegiance to ethnic group, intra-cultural and inter-ethnc agonism, hostility, aggression, bitterness, hatred, mistrust in the country which have not agued well for the building of a virile Nigeria nation . Instead of harnessing our diversities toward viable nation building, we have become slaves to our ethnic origin to which our allegiance is largely focused at the detriment of nation building. Interfaced with religion, statist and class, ethnicity is a potent reality in the Nigeria federal equation. The drop down of the economy, Nigeria is from the result from nigged ethnic particularisms of given constituents units of the Nigerian nation. But before we tell about how multi-ethnic nature of Nigeria has affected its socio-political development, we will mention some few important words. ETHNIC GROUP
This concept has many definitions from various people. In United States, Gardon in 1964 says “that an ethnic group is any group which is set off by race, religion, or defined origin or some combination of these categories. Seibel (1964) and Clingnets (1967) used the same terms ethnic group and tribe synonymous by Rose (1965) defined ethnic group as those members share a unique social and cultural heritage, passed from one generation to the other. According to Rose, ethnic group are frequently identified by distinctive patterns of family life, language, recreation, religion and others.
Sandra (1976) now combined the definition and said that ethnic group can be a consisting of interacting members who defined themselves as belonging to a named or labelled social group with whose interest they identify, and which manifest certain aspects of a unique culture while consisting a part of a wider society. POLITICS
According to Advanced leaners dictionary, politics is said to be an action that is begin taken based on a good judgement. In Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia says politics is a process by which group of people make collective decisions. The term is generally applied to the act or science of running governmental or staff affair.
Competitive ethnicity started in Africa since the colonial days. In search for the crumbs from colonial production, competition among Africans created or reinforced common consciousness among the various competing ethnic groups. At times the historical and competitive aspect of this consciousness were contemporary competition which may create a common warring section among previously and historically hostile and warning and sections of the same ethnic group.
Exclusiveness is as a result of ethnicity. Acceptance and rejections on linguistic-cultural grounds characterized social relations. These are expressed inevitably through inter-ethnic discrimination in jobs, housing, and admission into education of social services. These factors of exclusiveness are usually accompanied by nepotism and corruption.
Conflicts according to Okwudigbo (1978) are an important aspect of ethnicity. This is...
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Awolowo, Obafemi (1947). Path to Nigerian freedom London Boston-Allyn and Bacon
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Rose, P (1965). They and We, Newyork, Random House.
Sanda, A.O (1976). Ethnicity Relations in Nigeria, Ibadan: The caxton press (west Africa)
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