"Indigenous Peoples" Essays and Research Papers

Indigenous Peoples

Introduction The term indigenous has caused controversy across the world as some people see it an offensive name to describe people, the name is not the only thing that has caused a controversy also the people that this name applies to. Hence there have been many definitions of this word to try and make it more euphemism. Kuper (2003) agrees that this term causes a lot of debate. He argues that however most people prefer the word indigenous because it’s more euphemism than the term native and primitive...

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Indigenous People

ruled by Europeans, but it is not true, since slavery has always existed and always will, especially in indigenous women’s cases, one of the most hardworking women society ever existed. This is what my paper is based on: Indigenous Women’s Right and the Effects of Colonization. This topic was chosen because it is sad to see how women were badly treated in the older generations, in the indigenous world as well as how today their lifestyle has not improved, but has worsen tremendously over a short lap...

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Indigenous Peoples and Globalization

1. “Indigenous Peoples and Globalization” is an introduction to Native American Studies, give us a global perspective on Indigenous social movements through detailed case studies of important struggles across the globe. It demonstrate how indigenous peoples’ movements can be understood only by linking highly localized processes with larger global and historical forces. And the Globalization, is not only creating and proliferating cultural identity , it is also providing the technology for unrestricted...

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Deforestation: Indigenous Peoples and Amazon

Amazon Rainforest Conservation through Development of Indigenous Peoples Today, the Amazon Rainforest is a very different place than it was when the Spanish explorer Francisco de Orellana first navigated through its river in 1542. The forest has been around for 55 million years on the South American continent (e.g. Maslin et al. 2005) but through decades of deforestation, climate change, agriculture, and population growth, the Amazon Rainforest is facing a point of destruction. In Brazil, at the...

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Indigenous People

Task 2 The Indigenous people – they are the holders of unique languages, knowledge and beliefs and of practices for use of natural resources. In addition, they have a special relation to their traditional land. Their land has a fundamental importance for their cultural survival for them as a people. Indigenous people hold their own diverse concepts of development. The development is based on their own traditional values, visions, needs and priorities. At least this is how it used to be for the...

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Exploitation of Indigenous Peoples

History and Civilization I 11/26/12 Exploitation of Indigenous Peoples The Native Americans were slaves from the north to the South of the Americas and right across the North American continent. The percentage of Native American slaves was larger than black slaves and they were enslaved far longer than Black slaves. Native Americans were slaves for about 500 years, from the 1400s to the 1900s. Native Americans slaves were for 200 years before African Americans made it to the new world...

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challenges faced by Indigenous People

The challenges faced By Indigenous Peoples in achieving justice, are both complex and extensive. These issues stem from successive centuries of asserted colonial power, which consequently has resulted in the undermining of rights for many Indigenous communities, including the Australian Aboriginal Peoples and Maori Peoples of New Zealand. Systemic abuse of power has resulted in the gradual erosion of Indigenous culture, and as thus, rights of Indigenous communities, including Intellectual Property...

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Indigenous Knowledge Erosion

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE EROSION Jyoti Kumari Jyoti Kumari is a freelance researcher and doctoral candidate researching ‘Environmental History of Colonial Punjab’ at the Rajiv Gandhi Foundation in New Delhi. The author can be contacted at jyotikm202@rediffmail.com he indigenous communities in India are the original inhabitants of the natural region and they have been maintaining a historical continuity with pre-industrial societies by following traditional patterns of life. Scattered all over the...

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Relations Between Spain and Indigenous People

Relations between the Spanish and the Indigenous peoples Spanish colonization started in 1492 when Cristoforo Colombo, Christopher Columbus, arrived in the West Indies .1 Even though Columbus was on route to find a easier, quicker route to India, he stumbled upon an unknown land full of exotic new people, plants, and animals. Columbus was the first Spanish American to come to America, but many more Spanish explorers would follow after him; including Cortes, Aguirre, and Pizarro. The Spanish...

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Indigenous Knowledge and Scientific Knowledge

In this essay the paradoxes and difficulties associated with the ongoing debate between ‘Indigenous Knowledge’ and scientific knowledge will be thoroughly discussed. An attempt will be made to take a stand and decide whether ‘Indigenous Knowledge’ and ‘Scientific Knowledge’ should have distinct boundaries or whether they are able to co-exist successfully. In order to do this, reference will mainly be drawn from readings by L. Green (2012), M. Leach and J. Fairhead (2002). I will draw on evidence...

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Consequences of Exploration for Europeans and the Indigenous Peoples

wealth, new materials and crops, new source of labor, and new land for the European nations. The consequences for the native people of the Americas were much worse with devastating death tolls, enslavement, new diseases and racist attitudes towards them. Though it would not be fair to say that the Europeans did not share in negative consequences or that the indigenous people did not gain any advantages. The greatest negative consequences for the Europeans due to the European expansion are a devastating...

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The European Expansion and Its Impact on Indigenous People

Expansion and Its Impact on Indigenous People 15th and 16th century European conquest in Africa and Latin America was significant for global expansion. Important areas such as the West African coast and Mexico were explored, making this period of time momentous. However, what was even more noteworthy were the similar methods that the Europeans used while intruding upon both the foreign lands. The Europeans showed little respect towards African and Native American people and their values; they resorted...

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Globalization and Indigenous Culture

culture exchanges have forged worldwide links between people, countries, and regions. The popular terms such as “global city”, “global economy”, “cultural diversity” have made their way into the centerpiece of topics of today’s media shows. People from different part of the world begin to answers the same questions, does “globalization” bring the world closer together, or is this a homogenizing cultural imperialism, eliminating the indigenous cultures into thin air? Main: In the first part of...

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Indigenous Religions

Indigenous Religions of the World What is an ‘indigenous’ religion or belief system? When we hear the termindigenous religion’, what comes to our minds? How do we react internally when those words are mentioned? How do adherents of indigenous religions feel about those outside of their social and cultural circles, who know very little of their beliefs and who understand them even less. And how did the term ‘indigenous’ become associated with various belief systems that, in many cases, preceded...

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Representation of Identity by Indigenous Population in Sylhet

Representation of Identity by Indigenous Population in Sylhet by Md. Sultan Mahmood Introduction Bangladesh was born as a nation state in 1971. The predominant popular narrative of Bangladeshi independence, which we have repeatedly encountered whether talking with members of the elite or ordinary people, bears evidence of a homogenous ‘Bangalee’ nationalism and a deep ambivalence toward the country’s indigenous people, or Adivasi. Here the term Indigenous or ‘tribal’ has no clear definition...

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Indigenous Tribes of Latin America

Indigenous People of Latin America Throughout the world, when new lands were conquered, old customs would be lost. However, in Latin America, a great deal of their indigenous tribes not only survived being conquered, they are still around today. Different regions of Latin America are home to different peoples and many tribes are part of ancient full-fledged kingdoms. Some of these kingdoms are among the most well-known in the world. The Meso-American native peoples make Latin America famous....

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Indigenous People and the Criminal Justice System

regarding Indigenous Australians, Incarceration and the Criminal Justice System has found that Indigenous Australians have a far higher rate of contact with the criminal justice system. Indigenous adults are 14 times more likely to be imprisoned than a non-indigenous person. In 2007, Indigenous juveniles accounted for 59% of the total juvenile detention population; this is an issue that begins to occur even before adulthood. It was found that violent crimes were more common in the Indigenous community;...

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Sociology: Indigenous Peoples and People

INTRODUCTION The indigenous peoples of the Philippines consist of a large number of indigenous ethnic groups living in the country. They are the descendants of the original inhabitants of the Philippines who have managed to resist centuries of Spanish and United States colonization and in the process have retained their customs and traditions. The Philippine government succeeded in establishing a number of protected for tribal groups. Indigenous people were expected to speak their...

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Indigenous Peoples of the Americas and New World

World, and discuss their impact. C) Identify TWO things transported from the Old World to the New World, and discuss their impact. Outline: A Columbian Exchange B - precious metals - tomatoes C - horses -smallpox Movement of people, specie, plants, animals and disease from Europe to the Americas (and vice versa) - gold, silver; used for currency (made mother countries extremely wealthy & powerful) - one of several plants brought; improved nutrition & variety (but minimal...

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Modernization and Indigenous Cultures

Modernization and Indigenous � PAGE * MERGEFORMAT �7� Modernization and Indigenous Cultures William Ward Axia College of University of Phoenix SOC120 Intro to Sociology Yvonne Moore March 23, 2008 � � Introduction Modernization is the process of moving from farming and agricultural society to an industrial society and it mainly deals with societies after the Industrial Revolution of the mid-18th century. Some key features of modernization would be large, formal organizations and division...

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Indigenous Peoples of the Americas and Guatemalan Culture

Guatemala's population is mestizo (known in Guatemala as ladino), people of mixed European and indigenous ancestry. Ladino culture is dominant in urban areas, and is heavily influenced by European and North American trends. Unlike many Latin American countries, Guatemala still has a large indigenous population, the Maya, which has retained a distinct identity. Deeply rooted in the rural highlands of Guatemala, many indigenous people speak a Mayan language, follow traditional religious and village...

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Indigenous Peoples Movement: Okinawans (Ryukyuans)

January 25, 2013 Indigenous Peoples Movement: Okinawans (Ryukyuans) I decided to do my report on the Indigenous Peoples of Okinawa because I am full Okinawan and I am very interested in my people! Okinawans, also known as Ryukyuans live in the Ryukyu islands also known as the Okinawa Island and it is the largest and most populated island of the chain. Although considered by the Japanese as a speaking a dialect, the Okinawans speak separate languages such as Okinawa, also known as Uchinaguchi and...

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Indigenous Peoples of the Americas and Thesis Statement

Europeans intended to grow potatoes in Europe to supplement the native crops. Unintended: Some European countries became overly dependent on the potato as a food source. Affluent Europeans buy sugar from merchants in European cities. Millions of people in Africa are kidnapped by African slave traders and sold to European sugar cane planters in the Caribbean. Unintended: The demand for sugar in Europe became so great that sugar cane growers needed more workers to tend crops. They expanded the slave...

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The Relationship Between the Social Work Profession and Indigenous People

Brown – 3100913 Indigenous Studies – Assessment 3 Topic 4: The relationship between the social work profession and Indigenous people has been a problematic one. Discuss with reference to Stolen Generations. Social work is a complex and broad field and the relationship between social workers and Indigenous Australians can be equally intricate and difficult to navigate. The theme of this paper will be; ‘understanding the relationship between the social work profession and Indigenous Australians’. A...

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The Nature of Man a Seasonal Reading and Writing Paper with the Different Discipline

Indigenous Peoples Education Office Form In an effort to make the Philippine educational system truly inclusive and respectful of the diversity of learners especially those belonging to the minority groups, the Department of Education (DepEd) continues to strengthen its support to Indigenous Peoples (IPs). Recently, Education Secretary Armin Luistro ordered the creation of the Indigenous Peoples Education Office (IPsEO) that will mainly act as the focal point for the DepEd in planning, implementing...

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Role of Women in Forest Management

2007-15891 Soc Sci 180 Role of Women in Forest Management Increasingly, the role of indigenous peoples in forest management and conservation had been recognized on the international level. Even if forest management and conservation had been an indigenous practice since time immemorial, recognition of indigenous peoples roles started only three or four decades ago. However, indigenous peoples as protectors of the environment are taken as a whole disregarding the contribution of roles and...

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 The Indigenous Right To be forcibly moved from one’s own country or living space under the conditions of someone else’s circumstances can create daunting challenges to overcome. Internally Displaced Persons, often referred to as “IDPs”, are defined as "persons or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence” (E. Mooney, 2005). The forces that inflict the departure of these groups can range from political...

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Thinking Sociologically-a sociological perspective to health and illness.

health: experience from a study of urban young people' s health and well being" (Holmes, Stewart, Garrow, Anderson and Thorpe, 2002) and "Indigenous women' s perceptions of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment in Queensland" (McMichael, Kirk, Manderson, Hoban and Potts, 2000), are both discussed as excellent examples of what a sociological perspective has to offer with respect to Indigenous health issues. The "sociological imagination" asserts that people do not exist in isolation but within a larger...

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T'Boli Tribe

102,900 T’boli people in the Philippines. Many of the T’boli people can be found at South Cotabato Province of Mindanao Island, which is located in the southern part of the country and has their own way of living. Their educational system can be compared to many other indigenous groups of people in Philippines. They are promoting the education to their community to have progress and to preserve their culture through it. Many of us don’t have much knowledge about indigenous people especially and specifically...

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Said and Orientalism

their discipline is non-specific and incorporates many cultures, geographic locations, and even politics. I make the argument that Pacific Studies is centered on a specific geographic location as well as the indigenous people who inhabit the Pacific, even though the majority of the people are of European decent. Because of these ideas, I can accurately assume that the discipline is in fact “othering” the Pacific and creating the dichotomy that Said critiques against. In order to make this assumption...

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significantly. It helped the globalization in a way that benefitted wealthier countries and took advantage of poorer countries. The source also informs us that the Europeans helped civilize the world tremendously. Civilizing is the process of bringing people to a stage of social, cultural, and moral development that is considered to be more advanced. The source explains that without this period of time, a whole lot of things would be very different. It also expresses that literature was greatly increased...

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Real-Life Problem Faced by the Body Shop

is in helping to protect the third world workers and indigenous peoples. But behind the cuddly image lies the reality The Body Shop's operations, the Body Shop does not help the dilemma of the workers and indigenous peoples as well as put them on a pedestal in order to exploit people's idealism. Evidence from “What’s wrong with the Body Shop” (1988) stated that The Body Shop claims to be helping some third world workers and indigenous peoples through so-called 'Trade Not Aid' or 'Community Trade'...

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Historical Globalization on First Nations

Globalization affected the Blackfoot People The way of the Blackfoot First Nations was feared and fierce, but at the same time interesting and educational. Life was family and religion orientated and resources were abundant before the contact of the European Civilization. Legacies of historical globalization have affected many other indigenous groups around the world, other than the Blackfoot. Mostly the European explorer contact has affected the culture of these indigenous groups, such as changing their...

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‘Maintaining biodiversity at its present level is impossible if people are going to achieve a reasonable standard of living in the near future.’

and the smallest parrot ever registered live in these forests. The forests also constitute the home of the indigenous peoples, the Maisin. For the Maisin, forests provide everything from food and medicinal plants, to materials for houses, canoes and tools. Under the Papua New Guinea constitution, the Maisin are the legal owners of their traditional lands. But these forests and forest peoples are under threat due to large-scale logging activities and oil palm plantations. Oil palm plantations are not...

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Ancient Food Traditions and Ethnic Identity in the South of China

strengthening of ethnic identity by conserving that group’s cultural base- its core beliefs, knowledge, and practices. Food related topics are critical to the concept of intellectual property rights of indigenous peoples. This initiative seeks to give native groups self-determination on how indigenous knowledge and its products may be used and the compensation required. Therefore, research of horticulture and farming methods, food preservation and transformation methods, as well as dietary theories...

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Effects of Globalization on Japan and China

Globalization can be described as the increasing interplay of cultures brought closer together. The impact of globalization on indigenous cultures can be seen negatively and positively with varying outcomes. Globalization has increased opportunities for indigenous people, it's also impeded their ability to keep their cultural practices and knowledge. In many cases, indigenous people's views have been displaced by western views by becoming increasingly materialistic and individualized, values that are...

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stems a lot of pride. The Indigenous race have suffered from racist values of society and it is Eddie’s pride in his race that stems his battle for justice and equality. The culture of the Meriam People forms a big part of his identity which he takes great pride in. Though he was exiled from Murray Island at a young age, he still associates himself to being an Islander and takes great pride in being so. When he first introduces himself to Netta, he uses his Indigenous name – “Whitefellas’ name...

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UntitledIdentify strategies to promote acceptance of people from diverse cultural backgrounds.

generalizations about other peoples' cultures and customs. Such generalizations -- often made without a conscious awareness that we've used our culture as a universal yardstick -- can be way off base and cause us to misjudge other peoples. Ethnocentrism also distorts communication between human beings. • • • • 2 Identify the impact of ethnocentrism on interpersonal relationships and communication. Develop strategies for expanding awareness and understanding of people from diverse cultures. Engage...

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Introspect Into the Lives of Aboriginal Women: Prostitution in Western Canada

colonization, subordination of violence, and an immense proportion of poverty. Events regarding prostitution and brothels in Colonial times, violence against Aboriginal women in prostitution and discrimination from police, and a lack of education amongst Indigenous women are examined as modern day examples. By relating factual information about prostitution to statistical information, an in depth observation of the state, as well as society’s implications on women in the sex trade of Aboriginal decent is examined...

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Indigenous Health

“The status of Indigenous health in contemporary Australia is a result of historic factors as well as contemporary socio-economic issues” (Hampton & Toombs, 2013, p. 1). The poor health position of Indigenous Australians is a contemporary reflection of their historical treatment as Australia’s traditional owners. This treatment has led to Indigenous Australians experiencing social disadvantages, significantly low socio-economic status, dispossession, poverty and powerlessness as a direct result...

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Collaboration And RESISTANCE

clash of cultures that arose as European settlers competed for territory with indigenous people and began to enforce sanctions intended to coerce the indigenous population to colonial administrative systems. As their traditional economic, social and political structures were demoralized, Africans had no choice but to retaliate in defense of their traditional way of life, often at great personal cost. The indigenous people did not passively accept European claims to rule over them. As European troops...

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Transcultural nursing

Chukchi Peninsula of Russia, east across Alaska and Canada, to the southeastern coast of Greenland, known as the Arctic, live people with epic tale in the history of human settlement and the endurance of culture, known as Inuit. Inuit culture in not monolithic culture, but rather varies from region-to-region, community-to-community, also even vary in practice. Inuit people are divided to groups based on environmental factors, language and certain cultural features. Nunavut has an Inuit population...

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Hawaiian Sovereignty

want either of these. Many people today question the validity of the statehood because of the legal violations of long ago. Also, as human beings there is a naturally agreed upon law that we share with one another and that is to treat people with respect and dignity. The U.S. did not do this when they disregarded the treaty and the law to annex Hawaii. These are the reasons that Native Hawaiians are presently seeking reparations. Prior to 1778, about 600,000 people, mostly all Native Hawaiian...

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Introduction to Games

FIRST DRAFT “Preference of technological games vs Indigenous games; a comparative study of two generations in Abbottabad” Ridah Syed Kazmi 2009-B.BHS-019 Games: Games are defined competitive activities with agreed upon rules that organize play and provide criteria for determining winners and losers. (Robert et al. 1959). In different part of the world apparent similarities in games have been found. E.B Tylor felt that games might provide clues to early culture contacts. In his text Anthropology...

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Case Study in Baguio

because it only defines the interaction of people and different kinds of culture and tourism is one of the reasons there have been a generation of socio-cultural impacts. Socio-cultural impacts of tourism are described as the effects on the host communities of direct and indirect interaction with the tourists and the relation with the tourism industry. The impacts arise when tourism brings about changes in value systems and behavior and thereby threatens indigenous identity. Furthermore, changes often...

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Exterminate All the Brutes

impeccable military strength. The British were masters of the sea; steam boats were used all over the world to carry arms up rivers effectively (pg.48). The British were able to go up into the heart of a continent in search for raw materials or indigenous populations to enslave. The British had the largest colonial conquests ever experienced. The atrocities committed in the name of colonial expansion and imperialism was often justified by superiority military and biologically. With the race of colonial...

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Factors in the Development of a Country

in this chapter, however, have been created and continue due to the direct actions of humans. The very high rate and level of development experienced by most rich countries of the world is another factor which perpetuates many challenges faced by people in developing countries. Historical factors that hinder development Studying the past gives humans an enormous insight into the present. Using historical analysis in development geography helps to explain why many countries face development...

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Aeta Tribes

from its humble beginning to what it is today. As time progresses, the country and its people adapt to its changing environment, as well as their culture parallel with what they were before and what they are now. Tourism promotes international camaraderie. It promotes experience and proper understanding of the culture and the lifestyle of foreign countries. Unfortunately, these activities expose the indigenous culture of one’s country to foreign influences which lead to cultural degradation. This...

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Genographic Project

D. Garcia, (Executive Vice President of Mission Programs of National Geographic) to establish to help the expansion of the project. The Geographic Legacy Fund with continued contributions will embark on the continuance of empowering indigenous and traditional people on a local level, while raising awareness globally of their challenges and pressures affecting these communities, (National Geographic.com). The Genographic mission to initiate education in cultural conservation, linguistic preservation...

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there is obvious evidence that illegal logging is quite widespread in Brazil. In recent years, Ibama (Brazil's environmental enforcement agency) has made several huge seizures of illegally harvested timber including one in September 2003 when 17 people were arrested for illegally cutting 10,000 hectares worth of timber. Furthermore, Brazil is currently the second-largest global producer of soybeans, behind the United States, mostly for export and biodiesel production, and as prices for soybeans...

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Postcolonial literature

exploiting foreign lands, resources, and people. Enslavement, indentured labor, and migration forced many indigenous populations to move from the places that they considered“home”. Postcolonial literature attempts to counteract their resulting alienation from their surroundings by restoring a connection between indigenous people and places through description, narration, and dramatization . 2) Asserting cultural integrity During colonization, the indigenous cultures of those countries subjected...

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Races in Malaysia

KNOW MORE RACES IN MALAYSIA ORANG ASLI Orang Asli (lit, "original peoples" or "aboriginal peoples" in Malay), is a general Malaysian term used for any indigenous groups that are found in Peninsular Malaysia. They can be divided into three main groups - the Negrito (also called Semang), the Senoi and the Proto-Malay. Negrito is an Orang Asli group in Malaysia. There are only about 2,000 of them today. They are believed to be the earliest inhabitants of the Malay peninsula. The Negritoes are usually...

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Glt1 Task One

closer together and through this epic integration, many cultures, civilizations and indigenous people are being discovered. The people are experiencing other cultures and they are caught between two worlds. The western world is experiencing and learning of new cultures and people while the indigenous world has to balance their traditional values and views while adapting to this new Western world and its people. The adaptation of the new life or culture from one part of the world is term globalization...

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Critic on Teaching Philippine Folk Dances

objectives in relation to culture include the following: a) to foster patriotism and nationalism through the study of our dances; b) to arouse better appreciation of Philippines music and folk dances; c) to preserve posterity, folk dances and music indigenous to the different regions in the Philippines. There are instances that these objectives are neglected and focused more on the technical aspect of learning Philippine Folk Dances, like execution of the steps and presenting the whole dance in front...

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Why Gough Whitlam Shouldn't Have Been Dismissed

hopes and great endeavours in all areas such as rights for indigenous Australians, multiculturalism and benefits for women became apparent. The introduction of the policy of self-determination encouraged land rights and aimed to improve indigenous Australians’ access to justice. Along with the provision of appropriate funds to establish legal support for land right claims, the Whitlam government also thrived to return land to the Gurindji people in 1975, which could not have been possible under the governing...

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Globalization involves the movement of people, goods, ideas and information across national boundaries. It has been defined as ‘the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa’ (Giddens ,1990). Basically Community development is the process of helping a community strengthen itself and develop towards its full potential; it empowers people and feeds them with knowledge and skills...

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Classification of Dances

the Sinulog Festival grand parade. The word “SINULOG” is from the Cebuano adverd “SULOG” it means water current movement. It’s adaptation describes the forward backward step movement of the Sinulog dances. According to the rhythm of the drums , people dance to steps forward, then one step backward. In the later years: these dance has in envolved into three categories: Sinulog - base, free – interpretation, and latin Categories. And has been the cause argument. The historic event where the Sinulog...

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ECO 370 Benefits Cost

which the mine is proposed ·  Labor unions or organizers from the regions in or near which the mine is proposed ·  Recreation groups that use the region for camping, fishing, hunting, hiking, bicycling, skiing, or bird-watching ·  Indigenous peoples from the regions in or near which the mine is proposed ·  The chamber of commerce for the nearest city to the proposed mine Prepare a 10- to 15-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation summarizing the costs and benefits of the proposed...

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Native Americans and Peyote Use

historical precedence in existence to show the use of alternative forms of drugs being cultivated and utilized.(McKenna) The concept of an individual person deliberately changing their perception of reality with mind-altering substances is taboo for many people. Decades and centuries of culturally ingrained ideas regarding consciousness and meta-physics have led to the public censure of current dialogue. The possible ramifications of introducing an external object that is intrinsically imbued with special...

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Colonialism and Nationalism in Southeast Asia

curb nationalist movements and protect colonial rule. Opposition to the colonial rule were silenced or stamped out. However, these responses can be argued to be the reason behind causing nationalist movements to become more radical as it made the indigenous population increasingly unhappy due to the lack of political advancement for the locals. This made them to call for the complete removal of the colonial powers and nationalist movements start to spiral out of control. Even so, I’m still of the view...

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