Negative physical / environmental impacts
- The carrying capacity of a destination was not observed thus the place becomes too crowded. This results to overpopulation and overdevelopment. An example is the island of Boracay. - Depletion of a destination's natural resources. Locals and tourists compete over water supply and other necessities. - Since hotels and resorts, bars, malls etc. have been built, these pose a problem on the sustainability of the place. They may also disturb the flora and fauna of the place and even damage some historical sites. - If the tourism master plan of a destination was also not observed (i.e. building high-rise properties when there should just be a maximum of 3 floors), then these establishments pose a problem when there are natural calamities like earthquakes. Overcrowding, misuse of natural resources, the construction of buildings and infrastructure, and other activities associated with tourism, produce impacts on the environment. These impacts may be not only physical, but also cultural. In this chapter the most frequent and damaging tourism impacts at local level in regard to protected areas are analyzed. In general, the impacts of tourism vary according to the number and nature of tourists and the characteristics of the site. The individual tourist normally has a relatively small impact. Problems arise, however, if the number of tourists is large or the resource overused. Thus although tourism can be a lucrative source of revenue for a protected area, it can also represent a major management problem. As with most problems, the negative impacts of tourism can only be managed effectively if they have been identified, measured and evaluated. Once this has been done, tailored management responses can be created. Tourism impacts on protected areas can be broadly classified in two categories: direct and indirect. Direct impact is caused by the presence of tourists, indirect impact by the infrastructure created in connection with tourism activities. They result from:
* The intensive use of water and land by tourism and leisure facilities. * The delivery and use of energy.
* Changes in the landscape coming from the construction of infrastructure, buildings and facilities. * Air pollution and waste.
* The compaction and sealing of soils (damage and destruction of vegetation). * The disturbance of fauna and local people (for example, by noise).
NEGATIVE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF TOURISM
- Since tourists are generally perceived as having the capacity to spend, this might result to goods and other services becoming more expensive in a destination and locals who usually earn less will have limited access to these goods.
- Rampant commercialization of local products. Even rare animals and plants might be sold as souvenirs to tourists. : Increase in prices
• Increasing demand for basic services and goods from tourists will often cause price hikes that negatively affect local residents whose income does not increase proportionately .• Tourism development and the related rise in real estate demand may dramatically increase building costs and land values. • This makes it more difficult for local people to meet their basic daily needs.
Negative socio-cultural impacts
- The commodification of human relationships. Prior to the onslaught of tourism in the island, locals are usually naturally accommodating and kind. But since they got used to getting tips or gifts, they might not help tourists without anything in return.
- Locals may adapt some new concepts from tourists like the way they dress or talk. They may even learn how to smoke or drink and live a hedonistic lifestyle. In this regard, some locals lose part of their identity and culture.
- Prostitution is a global problem tourism-wise though it does not necessarily mean that the prostitutes are from the island destination itself
Tourism can turn local cultures into commodities when religious...
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