EXPERIMENT 1: PREPARATION OF BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS FOR MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION Introduction:
Cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, and is often called the building blocks of life. All organisms are composed of one or more cells, they are classified into 2 groups which are unicellular organisms and multicellular organisms. Plants and animals are made up of cells too. There are two basic classes of cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The structurally simpler, prokaryotic cells are found among bacteria. All other types of organisms such as protists, fungi, plants and animals consist of structurally more complex eukaryotic cells. In this experiment, we took an animal cell (cheek cell) and a plant cell (onion cell) as well as starch (potato cell) as representatives of the eukaryotes to be examined under a light microscope with the magnification of 100x and 400x. Objective:
To understand the structure of plant cells and animal cells. To study the structure of cells under different magnifications. To differentiate between the structure of plant cells and animal cells. To learn the steps and techniques to use a microscope.
Potato, onion, cheek cell, distilled water, iodine solution, filter paper, toothpick and methylene blue solution. Apparatus:
Knife, light microscope, glass slide, cover slip, forceps, mounting needle, dropper and white tile.Methods: I) Observation of starch grains
The potato was cut to obtain smaller piece of it.
The small piece of potato was placed on the center of the glass slide and enough pressure was applied with fingers to squeeze it until small amount of juice was forced out. The piece of potato was discarded leaving the juice behind on the glass microscope slide. A drop of water was added to the potato juice and the glass slide was then covered with a clean cover slip. The slide was examined under low power (10X), then high power (40X). A drawing of 4-6 starch grains had been drawn to...
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