Nazeem Sanwal

Topics: Islam, Pakistan, Muslim world Pages: 39 (13816 words) Published: April 7, 2013


Reproduced By: Sani H. Panhwar Member Sindh Council, PPP

Pakistan and the Muslim World;

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Speech delivered by Mr. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the Foreign Minister of Pakistan to the Pakistan Islamic Council for International Affairs, Karachi, June 13, 1965

An essential feature of the foreign policy of Pakistan is its marked emphasis on the extensive civilization of Islam as a force of emancipation and progress. The nature of this emphasis has passed through its own variations from the earlier days of Islam in this subcontinent. The quality of belief and the intensity of intellectual and spiritual preoccupation with its objectives, however, have not been impaired by the passage of time. At the centre of the Islamic world, stability and security had given rise to an attitude of mind akin to unconcern. On the contrary, the frontier regions which had to struggle against hostile forces never ceased to manifest an intense loyalty to the unity of Islam. The Muslims of the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent which formed part of the zone of confrontation were always dedicated to the concept of a central Islamic authority. Even though the Caliphate had, since the middle of the tenth century, lost all effective power, it was remarkable that there remained a solitary corner of the Islamic world which still looked towards the centre, passionately striving to restore its pristine image and authority. To further this end and to preserve the unity of the ummat, mighty rulers of Hindustan like Mahmud of Ghazni, Iltumisk and Balban sought, with utmost humility, the approval of the Caliphate of their rule over kingdoms which they had carved out by themselves. Even though the Mughals who came to power in 1526 refused to acknowledge the Turkish Sultan as Caliph, it did not prevent them from taking an active interest in all Islamic and pan-Islamic affairs.

ASCE DA CY OF THE COLO IALISTS With the decline of Mughal power in the eighteenth century began the era of British ascendancy in India. Politically independent Muslim states on the peripheries of the Islamic world fell one by one before the onslaught of Western powers. The Empire of the Mughals was finally liquidated in 1857. By 1886, Russia had conquered the Caucasus and extended her empire to the frontiers of Iran and Afghanistan, who were themselves the victims of the Anglo-Russian scramble for empires. Malaya, long subjected to European intrigues and infiltration, came within British occupation towards the close of the century. The Muslims enlisted in the Hijrat Movement with such fervour and such readiness, to undergo the suffering involved in being uprooted from their homes and migrating to other Muslim lands, that the whole of India was amazed at the heroic effort and sacrifice. The force and the momentum behind the Khilafat Movement and the determination of the Muslims to keep it going regardless of the sacrifices involved was such that it influenced to an appreciable degree the British decision to reappraise their plans for breaking up

Pakistan and the Muslim World;

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whatever remained of the Turkish Empire. However, it was at this stage, after 1922, that the founder of modern Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and his companions, finding a resusciated Caliphate incompatible with their political ideas, first equated the Caliphate with ‘spiritual’, as opposed to ‘temporal’, power an then finally abolished the institution altogether. With the abolition of the Caliphate, pan-Islamism changed from an active to a dormant force. Although it was revived from time to time, in essence it lost its compelling appeal to the leaders of Islamic political thought. While Turkey was in the grip of a radical upsurge under the leadership of Kemal Ataturk, the Muslims of the sub-continent had already embarked on a painful process of selfanalysis and introspection to restate and...
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