AP World History Chapter 15 Traditions and Encounters Study Guide

Topics: India, Islam, Hinduism Pages: 6 (1446 words) Published: October 19, 2013
I. Islamic and Hindu kingdoms
A. The quest for centralized imperial rule
1. North India
a. Tension among regional kingdoms
b. Nomadic Turks became absorbed into Indian society
2. Harsha (reigned 606-648 C.E.) temporarily restored unified rule in north India

B. Introduction of Islam to northern India
1. The Sind were conquered by Arab Muslims and passed to Abbasids 2. Muslim merchants formed small communities in all major cities of coastal India 3. Turkish migrants and Islam: Turks convert to Islam in tenth century a. Some moved to Afghanistan and established an Islamic state b. Mahmud of Ghazni, Turk leader in Afghanistan, made expeditions to northern India

4. The sultanate of Delhi (1206-1526 C.E.)
a. Mahmud's successors conquered north India, 1206
b. Established an Islamic state known as the sultanate of Delhi c. Sultans' authority did not extend far beyond the capital at Delhi d. Islam began to have a place in India

C. The Hindu kingdoms of southern India
1. The south: politically divided but relatively peaceful
2. The Chola kingdom (850-1267 C.E.) was a larger kingdom; ruled Coromandel coast a. At its high point, conquered Ceylon and parts of southeast Asia b. Navy dominated waters from South China Sea to Arabian Sea c. Not a tightly centralized state; local autonomy was strong d. Began to decline by the twelfth century

D. The kingdom of Vijayanagar (1336-1565 C.E.)
1. Established by two Indian brothers
2. They renounced Islam in 1336 and returned to their Hindu faith

II. Production and trade in the Indian Ocean basin
A. Agriculture in the monsoon world
1. The monsoons (rains in spring and summer)
2. Irrigation systems were needed for dry months
a. No big river in south India; waterworks included dams, reservoirs, canals, wells b. Stored rainwater in large reservoirs connected to canals
c. One reservoir constructed during the eleventh century covered 250 square miles 3. Population growth: 53 million in 600 C.E. to 105 million in 1500 C.E. 4. Urbanization took place in Delhi and other large port cities

B. Trade and economic development of southern India
1. Internal trade
a. Self-sufficient in staple food
b. Metals, spices, special crops found only in certain regions c. Through trade, south India and Ceylon experienced rapid economic growth

2. Temples and society in south India
a. Hindu temples served as economic and social centers
b. Possessed large tracts of land, hundreds of employees
c. Temple administrators were to maintain order, deliver taxes d. Served as banks; engaged in business ventures

C. Cross-cultural trade in Indian Ocean basin
1. Dhows and junks--large ships involved in maritime trade in Indian Ocean 2. Emporia, Indian port cities, were clearinghouses of trade and cosmopolitan centers 3. Trade goods
a. Silk and porcelain from China
b. Spices from southeast Asia
c. Pepper, gems, pearls, and cotton from India
d. Incense and horses from Arabia and southwest Asia
e. Gold, ivory, and slaves from east Africa
4. Specialized production
a. Production of high-quality cotton textiles thrived
b. Other specialized industries: sugar, leather, stone, carpets, iron and steel 5. The kingdom of Axum was a Christian empire centered in Ethiopia a. Resisted pressures of Islam; stayed prosperous through trade b. Controlled Adulis, most prominent port on Red Sea

D. Caste and society: caste provided guidance in absence of centralized political authority 1. Caste helped to integrate immigrants (Turks, Muslim merchants) into Indian society 2. Caste and social change: guilds and subcastes (jatis)

3. Expansion of caste system, especially to southern India

III. The meeting of Hindu and Islamic traditions
A. The development of Hinduism
1. Hinduism predominated in southern India, Islam in the north 2. Vishnu and Shiva
a. Decline of Buddhism benefited Hinduism
b. The growth of Vishnu and Shiva cults (and other gods associated with them) 3. Devotional cults: to achieve...
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