Native American & Alaska Native Cultural Project

Topics: Native Americans in the United States, United States, Indigenous peoples of the Americas Pages: 17 (5977 words) Published: October 18, 2010
Cultural Project: Native Americans and Alaska Natives

Introduction
The outline and presentation for this assignment generally follows the presentations from Giger’s (2009) Application of Assessment and Intervention Techniques to Specific Cultural Groups. There are over 500 Federally Recognized tribes in the U.S., plus some additional tribes recognized by states, plus unknown number of smaller unrecognized tribes. Many are also divided into clans and loosely categorized into major groups. While it is impossible to totally generalize across such a broad spectrum, the scope of this project and the focus of the information compiled are of the generalized Native American/Alaskan Native. Where appropriate the Alaskan Native is separated within a topic, but there is no separate Alaskan Native chapter. This was done because it would be impossible to compare and contrast even the several largest tribes, as much of the statistical data and research is lumped together as “American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN)”. For this paper the decision was made to use the term Native American rather than American Indian, as it more accurately identifies the current populations with the original indigenous peoples who were their ancestors. There may be uses of the term American Indian where a table or direct source information is used.

Dedicated to KE, Native American and good friend

CONTENTS

Introduction2

History and Heritage6

Pre-Contact (Pre-Columbian) Period6

Post-Contact8

Biological Variations10

Health Risk Factors10

Nutritional Preferences14

Physical Characteristics15

Culture and Customs16

Social Culture and Customs16

Family16

Religious Practices17

Education and Work17

Communication18

Cultural Health Care Practices19

Protection19

Native Healers and Folk Medicine19

Health Care20

Responsibility20

Barriers to Seeking Health Care21

Health Care Providers22

Cultural Responses to Illness and Aging22

References24

Author Note28
History and Heritage

The Alaskan Natives and Native Americans peoples, bearing the distinction of being the first Americans, share the same heritage of the hunter-gathers from the Siberian tundra who crossed into Alaska probably following game herds, probably some 30,000 years ago (Gascoigne). The history and heritage of the Native Americans and Alaska Natives is viewed in two parts, before and after the coming of the explorers from Europe and Asia. These peoples flourished over the continents, adapting to virtually any environment. The population estimates for North and South America at the end of the Pre-Contact period vary widely, ranging from 10 million to 100 million, with the current consensus of opinion being about 54 million. This includes approximately 50,000 living in the far northern areas, and 25, 000 Inuit living in Alaska (Wikkipedia).

Pre-Contact (Pre-Columbian) Period

The timelines vary somewhat among the scientific communities, but the generally accepted pre-contact period lasts from 24000 BCE (Before Common Era) until the “discovery” of the American continents. The Alaskan Native communities remained isolated for about 200 years longer than the Native American communities, until mid-1700, when Russian traders established posts along the Alaskan coast. Historyworld (Gascoigne) provides an in-depth historical timeline. See Table 1 for highlights of the Pre-Contact timeline.

Table 1
Pre-Contact Timeline

|DATES |EVENTS | |24000 BCE |Land bridge from Siberia across the Bearing Strait called Beringia, which is one thousand miles wide & | | |lasted about 10,000 years as an open space of grass and tundra....

References: Access Genealogy. (Ed.). (n.d.). Indian Anatomy. Retrieved March 16, 2010, from Access Genealogy Web site: http:/​/​www.accessgenealogy.com/​native/​tribes/​history/​indiananatomy.htm
American Indian Policy Center
Bureau of Indian Affairs. (n.d.). Services Overview. Retrieved March 27, 2010, from US Department of the Interior Indian Affairs Web site: http:/​/​www.bia.gov/​
Center for Disease Control
Center for Disease Control. (n.d.). Suicide and Self-Inflicted Injury. Retrieved March 16, 2010, from Center for Disease Control Web site: http:/​/​cdc.gov/​nchs/​fastats/​suicide.htm
Corral, K
Desy, P. (n.d.). Native American Healing Traditions. Retrieved March 27, 2010, from http:/​/​healing.about.com/​od/​tools/​a/​nativetools.htm
Economic Research Report Number 83
Falsetto, S. (2008). Native American After Life Rituals. Retrieved March 28, 2010, from http:/​/​ethnobotany.suite101.com/​article.cfm/​native_american_after_life_rituals
Fuentes, A
Gadsby, P. (2004, October). The Inuit Paradox. Retrieved March 16, 2010, from Discover Magazine Web site: http:/​/​discovermagazine.com/​2004/​oct/​inuit-paradox
Gascoigne, Bamber
Giger, J. Davidhizar R. (2009). Transcultural Nursing Assessment and Intervention (Fifth ed.). St. Louis, Missouri 63146: MOSBY Elsevier.
Indian Health Service. (2010, January). IHS Factsheets. Retrieved March 27, 2010, from Indian Health Service Web site: http:/​/​info.ihs.gov/​index.asp
Kabfleisch, P
Krauss, M. (n.d.). Native Peoples and Languages of Alaska Map. Retrieved March 16, 2010, from http:/​/​www.uaf.edu/​anlc/​
Manataka American Indian Council
National Society for American Indian Elderly. (2003). Why We Exist. Retrieved March 28, 2010, from National Society for American Indian Elderly Web site: http:/​/​www.nsaie.org/​exist.htm
Native Languages of the Americas
Niles, J. (1996). Native American History. New York: Ballantine Books.
St. Charles, J. (2000, June). Reading and the Native American Learner (Evergreen College). Retrieved March 24, 2010, from http:/​/​jan.ucc.nau.edu/​~jar/​AIE/​history.html
Steinman, E
U.S. Department of Education. (2005). History of Indian Education (Office of Elementary and Secondary Education). Retrieved from ED.gov Web site: http:/​/​www2.ed.gov/​about/​offices/​list/​oese/​oie/​history.html
University of Alaska
Wikkipedia. (Ed.). (n.d.). Population History of American Indiginous Peoples. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from Wikkipedia Web site: http:/​/​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Population_history_of_American_indigenous_peoples#Population_overview
Wikkipedia
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Native American Exp Essay
  • Essay about Different Views On Native Americans
  • Essay on Native American Water Rights
  • Essay about Native American a Cultural Diversity
  • Uninsured Native Americans Essay
  • Native American Tribes Project Essay
  • Native American Essay
  • Native Americans Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free