1. Contrast the terms mutation and polymorphism.
Mutations are “substitution patterns during gene divergence across vertebrate species” (Lourenco, Galtier & glemin, 2011, p. 67). In the case of species divergence “changes in population sizes or environmental changes can move populations away from equilibrium” (Lourenco, Galtier & glemin, 2011, p. 67). On the other hand, polymorphism is when “diverted natural selection rooted in differential resource…can generate and maintain intraspecific eco-morphelogical divergence (i.e., resource polymorphism) leading to population splitting and speciation” (Komya, Fujita, Watanabe, 2011, p. 1).
2. Discuss the types of mutations.
Recessive mutation is when both alleles are mutant “in order for the mutant phenotype to be observed” (“Section 8.1 Mutations,” 2000). Dominant mutations are seen “in a heterozygous individual carrying one mutant and one normal allele” (“Section 8.1 Mutations,” 2000). Recessive and dominant mutations have different characteristics in terms of inheritance in relation to genes. Other types of mutations are: point mutations, missense mutations, frameshift mutations and chromosomal abnormalities (“Section 8.1 Mutations,” 2000).
1. Review the concepts of Mendelian Inheritance.
Mendel reviewed and researched patterns in inheritance for peas and found that genes are transmitted to future generations of offspring (also true of humans). His work tested dominant and recessive relationships among traits to help predict and determine what a next generation would look like for plants and humans carrying certain dominant and recessive genes. He used probability to determine random and likely chances of traits being passed down to later generations, and did experiments with independent assortment to show combinations of traits and probability a trait will be passed down.
2. Review information on preparation of a pedigree.
A pedigree is the same as a family tree. It is
References: Komiya, T., Fujita, S., Watanabe, K. (2011). A novel resource polymorphism in fish, driven by differential bottom environments: An example from an ancient lake in Japan. PLoS ONE, 6(2), 1-10. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017430. Lamb, N. (unknown). Principles of Medelian Genetics. American College of Medical Genetics. Retrieved from http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/geneticmedicine/Home_Pages_PDF/Mendel.pdf Lourenco, J., Galtier, N., Glemin, S. (2011). Complexity, pleiotrophy, and the fitness effect of mutations. Evolution, 65(6), 1559-1571. DOI: 10.1111/j.1558.2011.01237.x. Section 8.1 Mutations: Types and Causes (2000). NCBI. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21578/