Preview

Mutations and Polymorphisms

Good Essays
Open Document
Open Document
845 Words
Grammar
Grammar
Plagiarism
Plagiarism
Writing
Writing
Score
Score
Mutations and Polymorphisms
Part I

1. Contrast the terms mutation and polymorphism.

Mutations are “substitution patterns during gene divergence across vertebrate species” (Lourenco, Galtier & glemin, 2011, p. 67). In the case of species divergence “changes in population sizes or environmental changes can move populations away from equilibrium” (Lourenco, Galtier & glemin, 2011, p. 67). On the other hand, polymorphism is when “diverted natural selection rooted in differential resource…can generate and maintain intraspecific eco-morphelogical divergence (i.e., resource polymorphism) leading to population splitting and speciation” (Komya, Fujita, Watanabe, 2011, p. 1).

2. Discuss the types of mutations.

Recessive mutation is when both alleles are mutant “in order for the mutant phenotype to be observed” (“Section 8.1 Mutations,” 2000). Dominant mutations are seen “in a heterozygous individual carrying one mutant and one normal allele” (“Section 8.1 Mutations,” 2000). Recessive and dominant mutations have different characteristics in terms of inheritance in relation to genes. Other types of mutations are: point mutations, missense mutations, frameshift mutations and chromosomal abnormalities (“Section 8.1 Mutations,” 2000).

Part II
1. Review the concepts of Mendelian Inheritance.

Mendel reviewed and researched patterns in inheritance for peas and found that genes are transmitted to future generations of offspring (also true of humans). His work tested dominant and recessive relationships among traits to help predict and determine what a next generation would look like for plants and humans carrying certain dominant and recessive genes. He used probability to determine random and likely chances of traits being passed down to later generations, and did experiments with independent assortment to show combinations of traits and probability a trait will be passed down.
2. Review information on preparation of a pedigree.

A pedigree is the same as a family tree. It is



References: Komiya, T., Fujita, S., Watanabe, K. (2011). A novel resource polymorphism in fish, driven by differential bottom environments: An example from an ancient lake in Japan. PLoS ONE, 6(2), 1-10. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017430. Lamb, N. (unknown). Principles of Medelian Genetics. American College of Medical Genetics. Retrieved from http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/geneticmedicine/Home_Pages_PDF/Mendel.pdf Lourenco, J., Galtier, N., Glemin, S. (2011). Complexity, pleiotrophy, and the fitness effect of mutations. Evolution, 65(6), 1559-1571. DOI: 10.1111/j.1558.2011.01237.x. Section 8.1 Mutations: Types and Causes (2000). NCBI. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21578/

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Satisfactory Essays

    1. Gregor Mendel selected traits which could be easily and unambiguously sorted into two classes. Each trait such as seed shape was first bred into true breeding lines or…

    • 1857 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Gregor Mendel is an Australian monk, who worked in a garden at a monastery. He experimented with pea plants, and soon became known as the father of genetics. The reason he studied pea plants was because they grow quickly, the traits can be easily observed, and the plant is easy to pollinate. Mendel’s method was to control the pollination of the pea plants and create offspring’s of the two plants that were pollinated together. Using self-pollination and cross pollination, Mendel was able to select plants that had specific traits and observe the traits that appeared in their offspring. The F1 generation is the offspring that is a cross between two parents. The F2 generation is the offspring that is a cross between two individuals in the same F1 generation. A dominant factor is the dominating factor, and the one that masks the effect of the recessive factor for the same characteristic. A recessive factor is one whose effect is taken over by the dominant factor for the same characteristic. Basically, a trait that is controlled by a recessive factor would not appear when paired with a trait controlled by a dominant factor.…

    • 292 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Give an example of a dominant and recessive genetic disorder. People with light eyes tend to carry recessive alleles of the major genes; people with dark eyes tend to carry dominant alleles.…

    • 369 Words
    • 1 Page
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Gregor Mendel wondered is his principle of segregation worked with individuals who differed in two traits. To test this, Mendel crossed pure lined round, yellow seeds with pure lined wrinkled, green seeds. He predicted that the F_1 offspring would be heterozygous for both genes. Experiments had established that the allele for yellow seeds were the dominant allele (Y) and green seeds were the recessive allele (y). There were two different ways as to how seed shape and seed color would be passed onto offspring. One was independent assortment, which says that the allele for seed shape and the allele for seed color present in each parent would assort independently. Another was dependent assortment, which says that the alleles for seed color and…

    • 600 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Genotype is the genetic make-up, the inheritable information, which comprises an individual organism. It is the code that is copied in reproduction and is passed from 1 generation to the next. It serves as the main guide in the growth, development and maintenance of a living organism; it also controls the formation of certain proteins and regulation of metabolism and synthesis. Alleles are alternative forms of a gene and genotype refer to a specific allele like hair color, height, skin tone, etc. These observable traits are the phenotype. Phenotype is the resulting characteristic of an encoded genotype; it is what we can see, it’s the physical appearance of an organism.…

    • 1144 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Mendel used mathematics and experimentation to derive major principles that have helped us understand inheritance. His ideas were totally different than the explanation for passage of characteristics from parents to offspring that was common to his time. List and describe his principles and describe how each contributes to genetic variability. How might biology have be different if his discoveries had not been lost for decades? Be prepared to…

    • 644 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Better Essays

    Fruit Fly Genetics

    • 1534 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Genetics is a topic that has been studied for hundreds of years. One of the most notable geneticists was Gregor Mendel. Mendel studied basic inheritance patterns and gene expression using pea plants. Mendel determined that the offspring of two parents contains one gene from each parent (McKusick 1983). However, since Mendels discoveries in genetics, other scientists have found exceptions to Mendels rules, and have termed these exceptions Non-Mendelian Genetics. One type of Non-Mendelian genetic inheritance pattern is X-Linked traits (Brooker 1999).…

    • 1534 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Better Essays

    Theodore Roosevelt Eugenics

    • 14350 Words
    • 58 Pages

    The founder of genetics, Gregor Mendel, showed that parents passed genes to offspring. Genes code for traits. For example, Mendel demonstrated that a single gene codes for the color green in peas. A single gene also codes for the color yellow in peas. The geneticists who followed Mendel had no difficulty extrapolating his findings to the rest of life. Of particular interest was the role of heredity in humans. In a casual way, people had long appreciated the importance of heredity, noting for example that a child looked strikingly like his or her mother. Geneticists sought to formalize observations of this kind, tracing, for example, the transmission of the gene for brown eyes through several generations of a family. In the course of this work it was natural for geneticists to wonder whether intelligence and traits of character were inherited with the lawlike regularity that Mendel had observed with simple traits in…

    • 14350 Words
    • 58 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    Pedigree lab

    • 1244 Words
    • 5 Pages

    dominant or recessive alleles found and a distinct mixing can be found between the genes. In multiple…

    • 1244 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Mendel was the first to see that traits in each person were passed down, not just from the parents, but also from grandparents, great-grandparents, great-great-grandparents, etc. He also figured out that not every person is the same as his or her own parents. Some of these traits can come from other family members that are no longer living. Mendel is the first to also describe these traits as passages through the generations. There are at least three reasons for Mendel’s success; 1) He focused on just a few traits – seven to be exact – instead of many traits as others did; 2) he thoroughly documented and quantified all of his experimental results; and 3) he chose to study these traits in the garden pea, Pisum sativum.…

    • 474 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    In genetics, when crossing a purebred white flower with a purple flower, we might expect its offspring to be a blend of both colors. Instead, we see that its offspring is purple as well. This is led to be by one trait being dominant over another trait. Gregor Mendel came up with a theory that each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results would be random. This law is known as the law of independent assortment.…

    • 1035 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    Genetic variation is important for the process of natural selection since it allows natural selection to take action on the existing genes and alleles’ rate of occurrence within a population. Genetic variation generates differences in phenotypes; so, it is beneficial for some organisms because it concedes the most fitted and well-adapted organisms to their environment to survive and reproduce.…

    • 205 Words
    • 1 Page
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Genetic information is complex and overwhelming and there are many resources available via the internet containing detailed facts on the subject. For this assignment, I will summarize information that is available from various genetic websites and who might find these types of sites useful. I will also select two abnormalities of sex chromosomes and two gene-linked abnormalities from Chapter 2 of our text entitled Child Development (Santrock, 2014) and use the information from the websites to provide a brief report on each abnormality.…

    • 792 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    3 Explain how Mendel’s particulate hypothesis of inheritance provided much needed support for Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection.…

    • 1633 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    The first is mutation. Mutation is a change in the genetic code. Mutations can spontaneous, for reasons unknown. They are only evolutionarily important if their in a sex cell. This can be caused by radiation or toxic chemicals. The second is Natural selection. Natural selection is the biological characteristics that enhance survival, they will increase in frequency from generation to generation. Fitness has a lot to do with Natural selection. Fitness is the ability for an offspring to survive and of course reproduce , therefore giving it's genotypes to the next generation. There are four basic principles within Natural selection. There is variation, heritable, populations may have more offspring than resources available and more favored traits…

    • 356 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays