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    Chromosomes

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    Karyotype Analysis of Human Chromosomes 1. Karyotype preparation and analysis Cells (from blood‚ amniotic fluid‚ etc) are grown in vitro (in a cell culture dish) to increase their number Cell division is then arrested in metaphase with colchicine (prevents mitotic spindle from forming) Cells are centrifuged and lysed to release chromosomes Chromosomes are stained‚ photographed‚ and grouped by size and banding patterns This is a photograph of the 46 human chromosomes in a somatic cell‚ arrested

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    Chromosome

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    Chromosome 13 Chromosomes are organized structures of DNA and protein found in a cell. There are normally 46 chromosomes in a human cell- 23 pairs. You should get 23 from your mother’s egg & another 23 from your father’s sperm. Sometimes these chromosomes can encounter a problem. The two main problems being deletion of a chromosome or an extra chromosome. Chromosome 13 is a chromosome that everyone has a pair of. It normally takes up about 3.5-4% of the total DNA in cells. There are

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    Meiosis: Chromosomes

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    form gametes (eggs and sperm). Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes per somatic cell. Fruit flies have 8; normal humans have 46. They exist as homologous pairs (partners) that are similar in size and shape and carry the same kinds of genes. Thus humans have 23 homologous pairs. The full complement of 46 chromosomes is referred to as the diploid number (referring to the fact that each kind of chromosome is represented twice). In higher organisms when an egg is fertilized the egg

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    Chromosome and Question

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    Write your name here Surname Other names Edexcel International GCSE Centre Number Candidate Number Biology Unit: 4BI0 Science (Double Award) 4SC0 Paper: 1B Monday 9 January 2012 – Morning Time: 2 hours You must have: Ruler Calculator Paper Reference 4BI0/1B 4SC0/1B Total Marks Instructions Use black ink or ball-point pen. Fill in the boxes at the top of this page with your name‚ centre number and candidate number. Answer all questions. Answer the questions in the spaces provided

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    Chromosome Mutations

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    Chromosomes Mutations­ With the exception of the mother’s egg cells or the father’s sperm cells‚ every cell in the normal human body contains 23 pairs of chromosomes‚ totaling 46 in each cell called the diploid number. According to The Human Genome project there are over 30‚000 genes in every cell‚ spread unevenly across the chromosomes. Of the 23 pairs of chromosomes‚ one member is inherited from the mother‚ and one from the father. Members of each pair are called homologous. The first 22 pairs

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    Sex Chromosomes

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    Sex Chromosomes Introduction Few people every wonder or care about their gender and why they are male or female.. Sex-determination system is a complex but fascinating progress‚ especially within reptiles‚ birds and insects. All living organisms begin with one eukaryotic cell; inside the nucleus of each cell contain thread-like structures called chromosomes. Chromosomes are once theorized to be derived from autosomes (chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes) and have changed into specific

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    Meiosis Review Worksheet Pledge: _____1. If the sperm cell of a fruit fly has 4 chromosomes‚ then the number of chromosomes in each body cell is: a. 2 b. 4 c. 6 d. 8 e. 16 _____2. Of the following cells‚ the only one to have the haploid number of chromosomes is: a) skin b)muscle c) nerve d) connective e) ovum _____3. The diploid number is restored as a result of: a) differentiation

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    of genetic disorders. Insertions are the addition of a sequence of one or more nucleotides between two adjacent nucleotides. They range in size from small‚ one base pair to large‚ a section of a chromosome.When a section of a chromosome is entered into another chromosome insertions can occur due to unequal crossover in meiosis. There are two types of insertions‚ an P nucleotide insertion and a N region addition. An insertion in an F8 gene can cause haemophilia A.Haemophilia is an x linked bleeding

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    “Eukaryotic chromosomes are generally much bigger than those of prokaryotes. In eukaryotic cells‚ replication may begin at dozens or even hundreds of places on the DNA molecule‚ proceeding in both directions until each chromosome is completely copied. Although a number of proteins check DNA for chemical damage or base pair mismatches prior to replication‚ the system is not foolproof. Damaged regions of DNA are sometimes replicated‚ resulting in changes to DNA base sequences that may alter certain

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    Homologous Chromosomes and Sister Chromatids (HC and SC): Clearly distinguish between HC and SC pairs. Your answer should include the following: a clear distinction between ‘chromatin’ and ‘chromosome’‚ and how this difference affects gene expression; simple line diagrams to illustrate the difference between non-replicated and replicated DNA inchromatin and chromosome forms; afull description of both HC and SC with a labeled diagram that includes gene/allele sequences for a heterozygote and ‘m’

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    number of chromosomes and crossing over to get more gene combinations and fertilization‚ involving the fusion of two gametes and the restoration of the original number of chromosomes. 3. Distinguish between the following pairs of terms: Chromosome- structures that makeup DNA Chromatid- DNA wrapped around protein called histone Homologous chromosomes- same but separated Sister chromatids- same but connected by centromere Synapsis- the entire process of pairing two homologous chromosomes Chiasma-

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    Karyotype: Sex Chromosomes

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    KARYOTYPING LAB INTRODUCTION The complete set of chromosomes in the body cell of a species is known as karyotype. Karyotype is a test to identify and evaluate the size‚ shape‚ and number of chromosomes in a sample of body cells. Any abnormalities such as extra‚ missing‚ or abnormal positions of chromosome pieces can cause problems with a person growth‚ development and body functions. Karyotype can be used to determine whether the chromosomes of an adult have an abnormality that can be passed on

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    Chromosome is in the nucleus of every cell. Each chromosome is mostly made up of coiled DNA. Besides DNA‚ there are also proteins in each Chromosome. The interesting point is that in Chromosome‚ DNA tightly coiled a lot of times around proteins and it supports the basic structure of chromosome. The way that Chromosome forms motivates me to think of how DNA and proteins in the Chromosome relate to each other both in the aspect of location and the aspect of biology function. For the second question

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    Introduction For a zygote to contain a diploid complement of chromosomes‚ the gametes‚ which fuse to form this zygote must contain half the number of chromosomes. This reduction of chromosome number occurs in two distinct sequential phases of meiosis‚ termed meiosis I and meiosis II. Both divisional sequences have sub-stages such as‚ prophase (I‚ II)‚ prometaphase (I‚ II)‚ metaphase (I‚ II)‚ anaphase (I‚ II)‚ and telophase (I‚ II) that is continued by cytokinesis (I‚ II)‚ which is not part of meiosis

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    over occurs between homologous chromosomes. These are the pairs of chromosomes in an organisms body that carry genes for the same trait located at identical positions on the two chromosomes. Even though they carry the same gene they may‚ however‚ possess different alleles for the gene which result in different forms of the trait. Pre-Lab (3 points): 1. Draw a tetrad in the space below and label the following: centromeres‚ sister chromatids‚ homologous chromosomes. 2. What are the two elements

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    A Chromosome Study Lab An examination of the chromosomes of a cell under high magnification can give much information about an organism. Figure 1 shows the chromosomes of a somatic cell as they might appear in an organism if enlarged many times their natural size. A somatic cell is any cell making up the organism except for reproductive cells. In this investigation‚ it is expected that you: a. learn what a chromosome Karyotype is. b. prepare a Karyotype of chromosomes according to the instructions

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    Chromosome 6 Summary

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    Summary of Chromosome 6 by author Robin Cook: Chromosome 6 begins with the murder of an infamous Mafia figure‚ Carlo Franconi. His Mafia competitors are the number one suspects for the shooting‚ and these suspicions rise when Franconi’s body disappears from the morgue before the autopsy is carried out. Medical examiner Jack is confused and interested by the case‚ along with his partner Dr. Montgomery. However‚ their attention is sidetracked by the arrival of a mutilated‚ unidentifiable body that

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    Triplo X‚ is a disorder within chromosomes. Our bodies are composed of millions of cells and each cell contains 46 chromosomes inside of its nuclei‚ which acts as the "brain" for the individual cell. Of these chromosomes there are typically 2 sex chromosomes‚ if you are female you will have two X chromosomes‚ and if you are male you will have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. When someone is diagnosed as having Triple X syndrome they have three X chromosomes‚ thus making it a disorder which

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    Using P-element Induced Male Recombination to Generate a Deletion in the DMAP1 Gene on Chromosome Two in Drosophila melanogaster Abstract: The goal of this study was to induce a deletion in the DMAP1 gene on chromosome two in Drosophila melanogaster through P-element mobilization. The DMAP1 gene may be an essential gene‚ however not much is known about it. We attempted to uncover the function of DMAP1 by creating a series of genetic crosses and selecting for brown-eyed non-stubble male flies

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    W. HENRY et al.: Polytene Chromosomes of S. (Nevermannia) praelargum UNCORRECTED PROOF Polytene Chromosomes of an Indian Himalayan black fly Simulium (Nevermannia) praelargum (Diptera: Simuliidae) Willie HENRY1‚ Subrata Kumar DEY2‚ Rakesh VARMA1‚ Sachin THAPA1‚ William S PROCUNIER3 1 2 P.G. Department of Zoology‚ Darjeeling Government College‚ Darjeeling‚ West Bengal 734101‚ India School of Biotechnology‚ West Bengal University of Technology‚BF-142‚ Sector 1‚Salt Lake City‚ Kolkata 700064

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