"Chromosome" Essays and Research Papers

Chromosome

Karyotype Analysis of Human Chromosomes 1. Karyotype preparation and analysis Cells (from blood, amniotic fluid, etc) are grown in vitro (in a cell culture dish) to increase their number Cell division is then arrested in metaphase with colchicine (prevents mitotic spindle from forming) Cells are centrifuged and lysed to release chromosomes Chromosomes are stained, photographed, and grouped by size and banding patterns This is a photograph of the 46 human chromosomes in a somatic cell, arrested...

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Mitosis and Chromosomes

characteristics are typical of this stage? Choose one answer. a. Chromosomes have split and chromatids are moving towards the opposite poles b. Chromosomes have reached opposite poles and are reorganizing to form two new nuclei c. Nuclear membrane and nucleolus have disappeared and chromosomes are forming d. Nucleus and nucleolus are clearly visible and centrioles are located just outside the nucleus e. Chromosomes have moved to the center of the mitotic spindle Identify the stage...

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Chromosome 6

Chromosome 6 This book is more or less two stories being told at the same time and then morphing together towards the end. It begins at a doctor's office in New York with the main characters Jack Stapleton and Laurie Montgomery. They are presented with a case concerning the murder of a mob member, Carlo Franconi. They are rudely awakened when they go in for the autopsy and the Franconi body is missing. This intrigues Laurie and she is on a mission to find out who stole the body. While this is taking...

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Chromosome 6

Chromosome 6 Robin Cook’s book Chromosome 6 is about organ transplantation and the possible dangers that could arise if the organs became tradable commodity, but before reading the book we had no idea what it was going to be about. Biotechnology was not a subject us two girls knew a lot about. Hearing the word biotechnology we thought of cloning, lab work, and experiments. Little did we know that it is much more complex than we thought. Biotechnology deals with crops to animals, fruit, milk, and...

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Questions and Answers on DNA and Chromosomes

number of chromosomes and crossing over to get more gene combinations and fertilization, involving the fusion of two gametes and the restoration of the original number of chromosomes. 3. Distinguish between the following pairs of terms: Chromosome- structures that makeup DNA Chromatid- DNA wrapped around protein called histone Homologous chromosomes- same but separated Sister chromatids- same but connected by centromere Synapsis- the entire process of pairing two homologous chromosomes Chiasma-...

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Karyotype: Sex Chromosomes

KARYOTYPING LAB INTRODUCTION The complete set of chromosomes in the body cell of a species is known as karyotype. Karyotype is a test to identify and evaluate the size, shape, and number of chromosomes in a sample of body cells. Any abnormalities such as extra, missing, or abnormal positions of chromosome pieces can cause problems with a person growth, development and body functions. Karyotype can be used to determine whether the chromosomes of an adult have an abnormality that can be passed on...

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The Positioning of Chromosomes During Cell Division

Introduction For a zygote to contain a diploid complement of chromosomes, the gametes, which fuse to form this zygote must contain half the number of chromosomes. This reduction of chromosome number occurs in two distinct sequential phases of meiosis, termed meiosis I and meiosis II. Both divisional sequences have sub-stages such as, prophase (I, II), prometaphase (I, II), metaphase (I, II), anaphase (I, II), and telophase (I, II) that is continued by cytokinesis (I, II), which is not part of meiosis...

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Meiosis: Mitosis and Homologous Chromosomes Exchange

over occurs between homologous chromosomes. These are the pairs of chromosomes in an organisms body that carry genes for the same trait located at identical positions on the two chromosomes. Even though they carry the same gene they may, however, possess different alleles for the gene which result in different forms of the trait. Pre-Lab (3 points): 1. Draw a tetrad in the space below and label the following: centromeres, sister chromatids, homologous chromosomes. 2. What are the two elements...

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Chromosome

Chromosome 13 Chromosomes are organized structures of DNA and protein found in a cell. There are normally 46 chromosomes in a human cell- 23 pairs. You should get 23 from your mother’s egg & another 23 from your father’s sperm. Sometimes these chromosomes can encounter a problem. The two main problems being deletion of a chromosome or an extra chromosome. Chromosome 13 is a chromosome that everyone has a pair of. It normally takes up about 3.5-4% of the total DNA in cells. There are...

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X Chromosome and Intelligence

believe whatever makes us feel good," reveals the English author, Terry Pratchett. Two articles explore whether or not intelligence is linked to the X chromosome in a person's genetic makeup. Perhaps this research will end the never ending battle of the sexes regarding which sex is smarter. X Rated summary Recent research regarding the X chromosome sequence may help to define the biological differences between men and women. Sexual differences in intelligence were once thought to arise primarily...

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Meiosis vs. Mitosis

represents nature's solution to the problem of chromosome doubling that would occur, if two diploid cells, i.e. two cells with a double set of chromosomes would fuse. Accordingly does meiosis produce haploid germ cells, with maternal and paternal germ cell fusing at fertilization and thus generating a diploid fusion product, the zygote. Meiosis is made up by two subsequent processes, both of which resemble mitosis. In the first process are the homologous chromosomes separated. It has an unusually long prophase...

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economics relations with other

Mitosis or cellular replication Some Important Terms for Replication: Chromosome – rod-shaped body in the nucleus that is only visible during replication that contains DNA and is our hereditary unit. Nucleolus – organelle inside the nucleus composed of RNA for ribosome formation. Spindle – microtubule structure that brings about chromosome movement during cell division. Chromatids – two identical parts of a chromosome following DNA replication. Centromere – site where sister chromatids are...

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summary of mitosis

into mitosis-----DNA and chromosome (have been replicated and ready to separate) 细胞相间移动,DNA和chromosome已经复制,准备分离 Biologists often refer to the process in separate subphases because of significant events that occur. 一般当成单独的子阶段,因为重要 @The phases of mitosis 1. Prophase (before phase) Chromosomes become visible as thread-like form when using light microscope. Each chromosome is duplicated and consists of two sister chromatids, join together by a centromere. 每个chromosome由2个sister chromatids组成,用centromere连接 ...

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mitosis

in which a cell breaks apart its chromosome to eventually produce two identical daughter cells. The cell spends 10% of its time in mitosis. The cell goes through four stages in order to complete this task. The stages are Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase. Mitosis only occurs in eukaryotic cells and the process is different for different species. Mitosis is fast and very complex. The first phase is Prophase. In prophase, the chromosomes the chromosomes start to coil, shorten, and become...

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Biology

eukaryotic cell are pack aced into chromosomes. Every eukaryotic species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in each nucleus. Humans have 46. Somatic cells (non reproductive cells) have two sets of chromosomes in most plants and animals. (Humans have two sets of 23) Gametes (reproductive cells: sperm and eggs, and spores) have hals as many chromosomes as somatic cells. (All of our gametes have 23 chromosomes) Eukaryotic chromosomes consist of chromatid, a complex of...

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The Cell Cycle

before mitosis begins Chromosomes are copied (# doubles) Chromosomes appear as threadlike coils (chromatin) at the start, but each chromosome and its copy(sister chromosome) change to sister chromatids at end of this phase Prophase 1st step in Mitosis Mitosis begins (cell begins to divide) Centrioles (or poles) appear and begin to move to opposite end of the cell. Spindle fibers form between the poles. Metaphase 2nd step in Mitosis Chromatids (or pairs of chromosomes) attach to the spindle...

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Stages of Meiosis

been replicated and forms chromosomes made of 2 identical chromatids * Homologous chromosomes line up to form a bivalent, 2 chromosomes or 4 chromatids (TETRAD), this process is called SYNAPSIS * Where chromatids overlap is called a CHIASMATA, and it allows for CROSSING OVER of genetic information between chromosomes Metaphase I: - homologous chromosomes (4 chromatids) line up on the equator Anaphase I: - homologous chromosomes separate and each chromosome (2 chromatids) move towards...

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BIOB11 Lecture 1 Notes

nucleus. An overview of several important discoveries on the nature of gene: In the 1860’s Mendel discovered the discrete units of inheritance. 1880’s: discovery of chromosomes. 1903: discovery of homologous chromosomes. 1909-1911: discovery of crossing over. 1911: discovery that genes could be mapped in order along length of chromosomes. 1944-1952: discovery of DNA as genetic material. 1953: Watson and Crick discovered DNA structure. When Mendel was experimenting on plants, he was using 7 different...

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Mitosis and Miosis

Just growth and development. What do you think some of those in humans are? • S – This is where the cell is committed to cell division. Inside the nucleus, the chromosomes (including the DNA) begin to replicate, the material makes a copy of itself (more on chromosomes in a minute). This results in two identical copies of chromosomes, called sister chromatids. The two sister chromatids are attached to each other at a point celled the centromere. This replication is important, because it allows...

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Down Syndrome Essay

Down Syndrome is a chromosomal condition related to chromosome 21. It affects 1 in 800 to 1 in 1000 born infants. People who have Down Syndrome have learning difficulties, mental retardation, a different facial appearance, and poor muscle tone (hypotonia) in infancy. Individuals with Down Syndrome also have an increased risk for having heart defects, digestive problems such as “gastroesophageal reflux or celiac disease”, and hearing loss. Some people who have Down Syndrome have “low activity of...

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Ib Biology Topic 4 Notes

4.1.1 State that eukaryotic chromosomes are made of DNA and proteins 4.1.2 Define gene, allele and genome Gene: | Heritable factors that control specific characteristics | Allele: | One specific form of a gene (differing form other alleles by one or few bases, occupying the same gene locus as other alleles of that gene) | Genome: | Whole genetic information of the organism | Chromosomes are made of DNA and protein 4.1.3 Define gene mutation * Gene mutation is the change in the base...

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The Process of the Cell to Divide into New Cells

Function- To grow repair and maintain the cells in the body along with the reproduction of those cells. Results- Two identical daughter cells form from the parent cell. Phases of Mitosis Prophase- Nucleus disappears, chromatin forms into chromosomes. Centrioles start to move to outer poles. Spindle fibers start to form Metaphase- Centrioles have moved to the outer poles, spindle fibers connect to the centromeres. Chromatids are guided to the middle of of the cell by the spindle fibers. ...

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Biology Meiosis and Mitosis

Inheriting Chromosomes A. Inheritance of Genes * Parents endow their offspring with coded information in the form of hereditary units called genes * Most genes program cells to synthesize specific enzymes and other proteis, whose cumulative action produces an organism's inherited traits * In animals and plants, reproductive cells called gametes are the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next * A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome is called...

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UCF Pathophysiology Copstead Chapter 6 Key Points

POINTS PRINCIPLES OF INHERITANCE Human DNA is organized into 46 chromosomes (23 pairs). Paired chromosomes look similar under the microscope but differ in DNA sequence. One member of each pair is inherited from the mother, and the other from the father. Twenty-two pairs of chromosomes are autosomes. The remaining pair, the sex chromosomes, confers maleness (XY) or femaleness (XX). During meiotic cell division, the chromosomes are distributed to daughter cells. Meiosis results in four daughter...

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Biology One

typically results in new somatic, or body cells. Meiosis results in the formation of either gametes in animals or spores in plants. The cells formed have half the chromosome number of the parent cell. Mitosis is best observed in cells that are growing at a rapid pace, such as in the onion root cell tips or at Drosophila giant chromosome. The root tips contain a special growth region called the apical meristem where the highest percentage of cells is undergoing mitosis. (Joseph C. Rossi, 2004). Drosophila...

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Cell Reproduction

same number and type of chromosomes as the parent cell and will be identical to each other. Although cell division is the defining characteristic of mitosis, a number of events must take place during mitosis prior to the splitting of the cell. There are four phases that constitute the period in which cells make preparation for cell division. The four phases are prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Prophase, the first stage of mitosis during which the chromosomes become shorter, thicker...

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AP Biology Meiosis Essay

cells produced during meiosis have half the chromosome number as the original cell. There are two cell divisions in meiosis, meiosis l and meiosis ll. These cell divisions produce 4 hapolid daughter cells. Haploid cells contain only one set of chromosomes, which is written as n. Meiosis consists of nine phases. In meiosis the interphase l the chromosomes replicate and the centrosome duplicates in one diploid cell. Diploid cells have two sets of chromosomes, they received one from each parent. During...

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Drosophila: Fruit Fly Lab

humans the diploid number of chromosomes is 46 (23 pairs). There are 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes called autosomes. Homologous autosomes look alike. The 23rd pair of chromosomes differs in males and females. These two chromosomes, which determine the sex of an individual, are called sex chromosomes and are indicated by the letter X and Y. If you are female, your 23rd pair of chromosomes are homologous, XX. However, if you are male, your 23rd pair of chromosomes, XY, looks different. Males usually...

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Lab report

Chapter 12 (Part 2) Explain the principle of independent assortment and its relation to meiosis: The segregation of chromosomes in anaphase I of meiosis explains Mendel's observation that each parent gives one allele for each trait at random to each offspring, regardless of whether the allele is expressed. The segregation of chromosomes at random during anaphase I explains Mendel's observation that factors, or genes, for different traits are inherited independently of each other. Apply the...

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Trisomy 13

where an individual has an extra chromosome 13. Trisomy 13 was first recognized by Patau and his colleagues in 1960 (Matthews, 1999). It affects approximately 1 in 12,000 births and is the least common of the trisomy syndromes, after trisomy 18 and trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). An abnormality of the chromosome occurs when mitosis or meiosis does not happen correctly. During mitosis, when the cells are dividing, chromosomes are either lost or gained. The chromosomes do not separate evenly. When the...

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Mitosis And Meiosis Of Eukaryotic Organisms

stage of mitosis is called the prophase stage. During early prophase, the chromosomes are evenly distributed in the nuclear cavity. As prophase progresses, the chromosomes approach the nuclear membrane, and thus the central space of the nucleus becomes empty. The centrifugal movement of the chromosomes indicates that disintegration of the nuclear membrane is approaching and with it the end of prophase. At this time each chromosome appears to be composed of two cylindrical, longitudinal elements called...

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Discuss in Detail the Cell Cycle, Mitosis and Meiosis.

of the cell and follows immediately after mitosis. During mitosis, replicated chromosomes within the cell are separated into two identical sets. Each of the two new nuclei has a full set of chromosomes containing a copy of all the genetic material for the organism. Mind that only eukaryotic cells go through this process; prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus so they undergo binary fission in order to replicate their chromosome. Interphase basically starts off the cell cycle. Stages in interphase are G1...

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Heredity and Environment

reproductive cell, or ovum. The sperm and ovum each contain chromosomes that act as a blueprint for human life. The genes contained in these chromosomes are made up of a chemical structure known as DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the genetic code, or instructions, that make up all life. Except for the sperm and ova, all cells in the body contain 46 chromosomes. As you might guess, the sperm and ova each contains only contain 23 chromosomes. This ensures that when the two cells meet, the resulting...

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Biology Final Review

prophase: chromosomes condense metatphase: line up on eqator anaphase: pull apart telephases: nuclear membrane forming. 2 daughter cells 46 chromosomes in parent cell, > 2 daughter cells (46 chromosome each) Interphase= cell grows, DNA duplicates chromosomes, cell prepares for division Meiosis 1 parent cell > 4 daughter cells (23 chromosomes each) gametes= sperm/egg zygote= when sperm and egg meet ( end up with 46 chromosomes) prophase 1...

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Mendelian Genetics

Assortment occurs Linked Genes X-linked trait (or sex-linked) Found on the X chromosome Why important? In males → x-linked traits are often expressed, because have only 1 x=chromosome. And no corresponding gene on the Y-chromosome In females → if X-linked trait is recessive → masked by dominant allele on other chromosome (females are carriers for the trait) Linked genes -two or more genes found on the same chromosome -if the genes are linked, they would always be transmitted together but this...

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Extra chromosomal inheritance

Extrachromosomal Inheritance: n. Inheritance of traits through DNA that is not connected with the chromosomes but rather to DNA from organelles in the cell. Also called cytoplasmic inheritance. Essay on “Cytoplasmic Inheritance” Inheritance of characters from parents to offspring is primarily dependant on the nucleus. Oscar, Her twig etc., had established in 1870 itself the importance of nucleus in the hereditary transmission of characters. The discoveries of Mendel further provided the genetic...

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welle

active X chromosome per cell instead of two. What causes this? A) modification of the XIST gene so that it is active only on one X chromosome, which then becomes inactive B) activation of the Barr gene on one of the two X chromosomes that then inactivates C) crossover between the XIST gene on one X chromosome and a related gene on an autosome D) inactivation of the XIST gene on the X chromosome derived from the male parent E) the removal of methyl (CH3) groups from the X chromosome that will...

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Biology Lab for Mitosis and Meiosis

2. Chromosomes are formed when the chromatin threads coil and then condense, and these chromosomes are two identical chromatids bound together by a centromere.   2. What is the main occurrence involving the chromosomes during anaphase?  The main occurrence involving the chromosomes during the anaphase is known as the splitting apart of the centromere of the chromatids splitting to create a single chromosome which possess a single...

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cell theory

German biologist Oscar Hertwig. It was described again in 1883, at the level of chromosomes, by the Belgian zoologist Edouard Van Beneden, in Ascaris worms' eggs. The significance of meiosis for reproduction and inheritance, however, was described only in 1890 by German biologist August Weismann, who noted that two cell divisions were necessary to transform one diploid cell into four haploid cells if the number of chromosomes had to be maintained. In 1911 the American geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan observed...

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Androgen Insensititivy Syndrome

development before birth and during puberty. • It results in the partial or complete inability of the cell  to respond to androgens • Androgen is a male sex hormone; testosterone   •  People with this condition are genetically male, with one X chromosome and one Y chromosome in each cell • There are two types of androgen insensitivity; complete androgen insensitivity and partial androgen insensitivity. • Individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome have female external genitalia with normal...

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cloning/Dolly the sheep

scientists clone an animal, they take the nucleus of a cell -- which contains chromosomes made of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and proteins -- and place it into an egg cell (also called an oocyte) from which the nucleus has been removed. The egg cell then divides to produce an embryo that develops into an animal, if the procedures work as planned. In previous cloning experiments with cattle and mice, the "donor" chromosomes came from very early embryos or, in the case of cloned frogs, from young tadpoles...

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Down Syndrom

2- Diagnostic tests. Conclusion References Abstract: * Many people ask what causes Down’s syndrome and what are the Signs and Symptoms of it. * To understand why Down syndrome occurs, the structure and function of the human chromosome must be understood. * This topic sounds interesting because we can learn more and more about Down’s syndrome and this make a big difference in the lives of both children and adults with Down syndrome. * During the research we will know...

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dania

Mitosis Biology Project Dania Abu Zahra, Hadeel Kashash, Nada Mubarak, Reem Al Ahbabi What is Mitosis? Mitosis is the process by which a cell, which has previously replicated each of its chromosomes, separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus into two identical sets of chromosomes, each set in its own new nucleus. It is a form of nuclear division. It is generally followed immediately by cytokinesis. Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle—the division of...

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Observing Mitosis and Meiosis on Cell Specimens

Mitosis and Meiosis are the two types of nuclear division. The process of mitosis occurs when chromosomes are separated in the cell nucleus, into two different nuclei after that cytokinesis will occur. The M phase of the cell cycle comprises of mitosis and cytokinesis. Meiosis contained a diploid cell that has two copies of each chromosomes and it produces four haploid cells containing a copy of each chromosomes. Written by M.J. Farabee, Sexual reproduction occurs only in eukaryotes. Eukaryotes: Any...

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Using Garlic Root Tips to Observe Mitosis

Mitosis is a cellular process that replicates chromosomes and produces two identical nuclei in preparation for cell division, from the original cell two cells are derived, each of which possesses the same genetic material. Mitosis has five phases: interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Interphase The DNA duplicates during interphase to prepare for mitosis. Chromosomes are not clearly discerned in the nucleus. Prophase Chromatin in the nucleus begins to condense and becomes visible...

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Genetics Test Review

CHAPTER 12 -1406        CHAPTER 8- 1408 MITOSIS     1. Define: genome, gene, chromosomes, chromatin, binary fission, homologous chromosomes, sister chromatids, daughter chromosomes, somatic cells, gametes, centromere, kinetochore,  karyokinesis, spindle fibers, kinetochore microtubules, nonkinetochore microbules, centrosome, asters     2. List differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic genome.     3. A chromosome consists of ____ (60%) and ____ (40%).   4. Describe the phases of the cell...

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Role of Genetics

called chromosomes. “A chromosome is a long strand of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that has bundled itself together in order to replicate” (Chromosomes, 2006). Within the nucleus of a human cell there are 46 chromosomes, or 23 pair. This means there are 23 chromosomes within the egg and another 23 within the sperm. One pair out of the 23 is called the sex chromosome, the rest are called autosomes. The sex chromosome determines whether an individual is male or female. So far, we have chromosomes that...

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MItosis 1

telophase, prophase. D. telophase, prophase, anaphse, metaphase. _______13. Chromosomes are replicated (copied) during: A. mitosis. B. cytokinesis. C. S phase. D. G1 phase. _______14. Chromatin condenses into chromosomes during: A. prophase. B. anaphase C. metaphase. D. telophase. _______15. Spindle fibers attach to chromosomes during: A. prophase. B. anaphase C. metaphase. D. telophase. _______16. Chromosomes align to form metaphase plate: A. prophase. B. anaphase C. metaphase...

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Biology Review Guide

the difference between haploid and diploid cells. Tell where in an organism they are found. Tell how they are produced. A haploid cell is a cell that contains one complete set of chromosomes. Gametes(sperm and ova) are haploid cells that are produced by meiosis. Diploid cells contain two complete sets (2n) of chromosomes. Diploid cells reproduce by mitosis making daughter cells that are exact replicas. Some examples are skin, blood, muscle cells (also known as somatic cells). 2. In 2-4 sentences...

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The Study of Human Nature

genes that regulate how and when the body forms tissues and organs Chromosomes: sequence of genes (46 total) *species specific 23 homologous pairs homologous chromosones carry the same genetic information, they are organized in the same way, same size, but NOT identical to each other. Karyotype Autosomes (22 pairs) carry information on the body (physical characteristics, but doesn’t include sexual characteristics) Sex Chromosomes (1 pair) determine the sex of the individual Cell Division: ...

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The same parents might produce offspring that are different fron another.

genetically different offspring which all differ in traits, the reason this occurs is because of the way that the chromosomes are handled to make gametes. The general gist of meiosis is that a homologous pair is split twice to make four separate cells that have the haploid number of chromosomes meaning when they fuse with other gametes they form a zygote with the diploid number of chromosomes. There are two major parts of the meiosis nuclear division cycle that result in four unique gametes at the end...

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Gene Complementation in Bacteria

Lecture 14 Lecture Gene Complementation in Bacteria In order to perform tests for dominance or for complementation in bacteria we need a way to make the bacteria diploid for part of the chromosome. To do this we need to consider a different extrachromosomal element: Ori T The F plasmid (length 105 base pairs) Tra genes There are some special terms to describe the state of F in a cell: F– refers to a strain without any form of F, whereas F+ refers to a strain with an F plasmid. F, ...

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Mitosis (I Don't Own This)

obtains the same number of chromosomes and the same nuclear code as the original nucleus is call mitosis. Mitosis occurs in four phases. Interphase occurs between mitosis. Interphase: Cell contains easily seen nucleus and nucleolus- chromosomes appear as fine dots within nucleus Mitosis: 4 steps Prophase – cell nucleus enlarged –nucleolus no longer visible- chromosomes appear as short strands within nucleus. Metaphase – chromosomes long and thin strands – chromosomes lined up along cell center...

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The Cell Cycle

are packaged into chromosomes. 4) The nuclei of a human somatic cell (all body cells except the reproductive cells) each contain 46 chromosomes made up of two sets of 23, one set inherited from each parent. 5) Reproductive cells or gametes-sperm and eggs-have half as many chromosomes as somatic cells, or only one set of 23 chromosomes. 6) Eukaryotic chromosomes are made of chromatin, a complex of DNA and associated protein molecules. C. Distribution of Chromosomes During Eukaryotic...

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mitosis experiment

and to the parent nucleus. Mitosis is part of the cell cycle which also includes chromosome replication and division of the cytoplasm i.e. cytokinesis. The chromosomes are always present in the nucleus but they are most easily seen when the nucleus divides. During this division process chromosomes contract significantly after which they can be seen under the light microscope as distinct thread-like structures. Chromosomes are usually studied by obtaining actively dividing tissue, fixing the material...

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Miss

behaviour of chromosomes during meiosis leads to variation. In this report you must explain crossing over and independent assortment (P4). (Max 500 words) 1c Create a table comparing mitosis and meiosis (P2). Task 2 2 Carry out practical investigations to record stages of cell division in garlic / onion root tip cells (P3). Using photographs of your results identify at least 5 cells that are dividing and explain the stage these cell are in and the behaviour of the chromosomes.(P2 & M2) ...

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Cells Cell

different. Depending on the cancer that one may have cancer cells have more chromosomes that are scattered which is for why cancer cells are formed. In cell division all living things obtain cells in which come from other preexisting cells. If normal cells are do not divide and make new cells then cancer will occur. In order of all cells to be the same as a parent the mitosis in a must. Mitosis is the separation of copied chromosomes into single cells. The problem with unregulated cell division is that...

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Ecology and Evolution Study guide

Germ Plasm: sex cells (gametes) 4. Soma: every other cell other than gamete 5. Gene: unit of heredity carried from parent to offspring 6. Chromosome: carries genetic information in form of genes. 7. Locus: specific location of a gene on a chromosome 8. Ploidy: number of sets of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell a. Haploid: number of chromosomes in a gamete (n) b. Diploid: two gametes form this with twice the number (2n) 9. Eukaryote: has nucleus, multicellular, membrane bound nucleus...

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Importance of Cell Division Test Notes

18-20 hours. Mitosis 1. Interphase- Chromosomes are copied Chromosomes appear as threadlike coils (chromatin) at the start, but each chromosome and its copy (sister chromosome) change to sistr chromatids at the end of this phase. 2. Prophase- Mitosis begins (cell begins to divide) Centrioles (or poles) appear and begin to move to the opposite ends of the cell Spindle fibers form between the poles 3. Metaphase- Chromatids (or pairs of chromosomes) attach to the spindle fibers 4. Anaphase- ...

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Biology Mitosis Lab

ready to divide. The second longest in prophase in which the chromatin fibers start to form chromosomes. The other phases which follow are very short and quick. Introduction: Mitosis is the division of the nucleus,providing equal amounts of nuclear material to the daughter cells,in eukaryotes. Equal amounts of chromosomes are provided for the forming daughter cells by replicating the DNA and chromosomes before the division. Mitosis occurs in somatic cells and produces 2 daughter cells. The whole...

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