MULTI MODAL TRANSPORTATION
Multimodal transportation is the movement of cargo from the point of origin to the final destination, by using two or more modes of transport. Multimodal transportation describes a shipment that takes several means of transportation – rail, road, ocean, air – from its point of departure to its point of destination.
The concept of international multimodal transport covers the door-to-door movement of goods under the responsibility of a single transport operator. It developed with the container revolution, initiated in the late 50 's by Malcom McLean and his trucking operations.
Possible multimodal combinations include rail-highway, ocean highway, rail-waterway, highway-waterway, pipeline-rail, and pipeline highway. Combinations of three modes are, of course, also possible. Air-highway combinations have proved successful and profitable. Also there is growing interest in developing air-highway-rail combinations.
EMERGENCE OF CONTAINER TECHNOLOGY
The emergence of the container technology and of the multimodal transport concept facilitated growing international trade. Trade and transport are inextricably linked: efficient transport services are a prerequisite to successful trading.
International transport generally implies the use of various transport links (interfaces and modes), each link corresponding to a transfer, storage or transport operation either in the country of origin, in a transit country, or in the country of final destination.
This situation has created a number of problems over the years, as more and more shippers are realizing that this new concept is involving the effective participation of various transport mode operators but does not always make clear who is responsible for delivering cargo at destination in safe conditions, according to agreed schedules.
Considering the variety of cultures, languages and commercial practices at both
Bibliography: 11. Dr. Hariharan K V., “Containerization and Multimodal Transport in India”, Shroff Publications, Mumbai, 2001 12 13. Girish Gujar, “Growth of Containerization and Multimodal Transportation In India”, Maritime Economics and Logistics, 2005/2006