Mrs A. Mweemba

Topics: Numeral system, Number, Decimal Pages: 184 (47796 words) Published: August 22, 2013
National In-Service Teachers’ College

Primary Teachers’ Diploma by Distance Learning

Module 3 Numeracy

Revised Edition 2006


Writers Y. Mumbula R. Kapambwe G. Chilekwa P. Mbumwae J. Silwimba S. Golden C. Maambo Team leader and writer, Ministry of Education Hq Writer, Caritas High School, Kabwe Writer, Kitwe Teachers’ College Writer, NISTCOL, Chalimbana Writer, Teacher Education Department Adviser, Charles Lwanga Teachers’ College Module Manager, NISTCOL, Chalimbana

Revised in 2006 by
B. Nkhanta P. Mbumwae J. K. Shipola P.M. Muzumara P. Malambo P.M. Mbulo C. Kamanga L. Phiri Adviser School of Education, UNZA. Team leader and Writer, NISTCOL, Chalimbana Deputy Team leader and Writer, NISTCOL, Chalimbana Principal and writer, NISTCOL, Chalimbana Writer, NISTCOL, Chalimbana Writer, NISTCOL, Chalimbana Writer, NISTCOL, Chalimbana Writer, NISTCOL, Chalimbana

Edit and Layout B.F.J. Brochez. V.V.O.B. (Flemish Association for International Cooperation and Technical Assistance) V.V.O.B. (Flemish Association for International Cooperation and Technical Assistance)

T. Meyns

© 2006 Ministry of Education – Republic of Zambia
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Preface Key icons used in this module General Introduction Unit 1: Counting systems How did numbers come about? The Egyptian system The Babylonian System The Roman system The Hindu-Arabic system Pre-number activities Early counting Meaning of counting numbers Number relations How do you introduce zero? Number patterns Place value The abacus Other number bases Unit 2: Addition and subtraction Addition Addition facts Using flash cards, dice and matching cards Doubles Addition using an abacus Addition algorithms Some common errors made by pupils in addition Subtraction Subtraction facts Facts with zero Doubles and near doubles Subtraction with decomposition Other subtraction algorithms Common errors in subtraction Remedies to errors in subtraction Mental skills Higher decade (ten) facts Mental skills in addition and subtraction Compensation strategies Other number bases vii viii ix 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 7 8 9 11 11 13 15 16 19 19 21 22 24 26 27 28 28 30 31 31 32 34 34 35 35 36 37 38 39

Unit 3: Multiplication and division Multiplication Multiplication facts Multiplication algorithms Division Division facts Long division Mental skills in multiplication Mental skills in division Unit 4: Parts of a whole Common fractions Comparing fractions Errors children make in comparing fractions Equivalent fractions Addition of fractions using diagrams by finding the common denominator Subtraction of fractions Decimal fractions Addition and subtraction of decimals Percentages Convert percentages to common fractions Convert percentages to decimals Percentages and other fractions Ratio and proportion Proportion Direct proportion Inverse proportion Unit 5: Integers Integers in everyday life Addition and subtraction using the number line Subtraction using a number line Deriving the rule of subtracting integers Multiplication of integers Division of integers Unit 6: Measures Required teaching and learning aids Shapes Two-dimensional shapes Three-dimensional shapes Line of symmetry Measures Measuring length Non-standard units of length

42 42 44 47 50 51 53 56 57 60 64 65 66 67 69 69 70 71 73 75 76 77 78 78 79 79 80 81 83 84 85 87 88 90 92 94 94 95 95 102 103 104 105 106

Standard units of length Measuring in centimetres, Measuring in metres Measuring length in decimals Measuring in kilometers Perimeter Area Non-standard units of area Standard unit of area Mass or weight Capacity Volume Time Temperature Angles Unit 7: Arithmetic Money Addition and subtraction...
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