UNIT 4222-232 MOVE AND POSITION INDIVIDUALS ACCORING TO THEIR PLAN OF CARE (HSC 2028) Outline the anatomy and physiology of the human body in relation to the importance of correct moving and positioning of individuals. The back is made up of the spine or vertebral column which is formed from a number of different groups of bones. It protects the spinal cord and allows flexibility of the upper body. The bones are held together by ligaments and small muscles which stretch from one bone to the next to give protection and keep the joint aligned. Between each bone and the next is a disc which is a shock absorber. Each disc consists of a soft semi fluid centre part, the nucleus, which is surrounded by a tough and fibrous outer coating, the annulus. The nuclear material moves around within the disc allowing the disc to alter their shape and act as shock absorbers. There are seven cervical vertebrae, which together make up the skeletal structure of the neck. These protect the spinal cord, support the skull and allow a range of movement. The twelve thoracic vertebrae are the bones of which the ribs are attached. The thoracic vertebrae sit between the cervical vertebrae of the neck and the lumbar vertebrae of the lower back. The five lumbar vertebrae of the lower back are the strongest vertebrae of the spinal column. The intervertebral discs and connecting spinal ligaments support the bones of the spine. They act as shock absorbers reducing wear on the vertebrae. The sacrum and coccyx form the tail end of the spinal column both are formed from fused vertebrae, allowing attachment for weight bearing ligaments and muscles and helping to protect the pelvic organs. Muscles work like levers and they allow the bones at joints to work like hinges. When the muscle contracts it makes the bones at the joint to move to the direction they are designed to move and as far as they can allow. They need to be exercised on a regular basis otherwise they become floppy and make movement slower and more difficult. Nerve fibres which are delicate send impulses to muscles and can easily damage through poor moving and handling techniques. Describe the impact of specific conditions on the correct movement and positioning of an individual. Arthritis causes joints to be stiff and painful and it limits movement in the affected areas. Moving the arthritic joints beyond their stretch limit can cause pain and comfort therefore care needs to be exercised when moving and positioning arthritic people. Parkinson’s disease may cause limbs to be rigid and this may affect normal movement and positioning. Care should be taken when assisting people diagnosed with Parkinson’s as forcing the rigid limb to stretch further than it is able to causes discomfort and pain. They also have slower reaction times and it can take longer for them to initiate movement and one needs to be patient with them. Amputation affects the movement of a person depending on where the amputation has taken place. Cerebral palsy may cause muscles or joints to contract causing a fixed rigid limb. When assisting a person diagnosed with cerebral palsy ensure that effective communication skills are used. Stroke can leave a person with a permanent weakness down one side of their body or in a deep coma from which they will never recover. When assisting a person who has suffered a stroke, it is important that you know the extent of the stroke and the parts of the body that have been affected. Describe how legislation and agreed ways of working affect working practices related to moving and positioning people. Unsafe moving and handling techniques can result in injury to either the care worker or the person being moved. There is legislation in place to protect people and reduce the risk of injury. The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974.
This Act makes it a legal requirement for all employees to ensure that the health, safety and welfare of employees are protected, so far as is reasonably practicable. In...
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