Motivation of Employees

Topics: Motivation, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Abraham Maslow Pages: 5 (1755 words) Published: June 19, 2013
Assignment 2.
The customer is always right. This motto was popularised by Wanamaker, one of the most successful merchants of the 20th century, who is also considered to be a pioneer in marketing. (McBain, 1944). The majority of marketing theorists claims that organizations that focus on their customer' needs are better positioned to achieve long- term success than companies that do not (Kotler, 2000). Research has shown that customers receive social, psychological and economic benefits from engaging in long-term relations with service firms, and these yield positive returns for the companies (Gwinner et al., 1998). But it is also important to recognise that when buying services customers tend not to be simply buying the elements of service, but something much greater: consumers buy the whole concept (Slack, Chambers, Johnston, 2005). In terms of its elements, employees can be a weak or a strongest link in this service chain. Employees can influence the association a customer makes with a corporate brand, they act like an ambassadors of the organization even if they don't have a direct contact with the customers: and the main aim of them is to build and maintain long-term relationships with loyal consumers (Davies, Chun, 2009). New marketing concept suggest modifying original 4P's of the service marketing mix by adding a fifth P for "people" (Berry, 2000). Those entrepreneurs, who already realized it, now put a big emphasis on employees' job satisfaction and workers motivation in order to improve service performance and increase the service productivity. Researchers from Harvard University have developed a concept or the Service- profit chain, which links are as follows: profit is mainly stimulated by customer loyalty; loyalty is a result of customer's satisfaction. Satisfaction is influenced by the value and quality of service, and the value is finally created by positively motivated, satisfied and loyal employees. (Heskett, Jones et al., 1991). As we can see, motivation is critically important for workers' optimal functioning and organisations' productivity (Pinder, 2008) High levels of work motivation vary from bonuses and rewards to pressure caused by deadline. There is a lot of papers about motivation, where the authors made different hypotheses, which sometimes contradict each other. After reviewing the literature I have decided to divide the factors that positively motivate employees into three groups: 1) Basic factors that is essential for existence of the workers' motivation. 2) Practical factors that has a direct impact on workers.

3) Psychological factors, that is crucial for job satisfaction of the workers and increased service performance. 1) Basic motivational factors are described in the Maslow's Hierarchy of needs. This theory, initially based on individuals' needs, can be easily applied for the business environment. The basic physiological needs in the context of organization can be satisfied by providing regular and appropriate salary for the employees, having breaks and eating opportunities. As far as the safety needs are concerned, managers should provide the job security and safe working environment for the employees (). In the Two- Factor theory of motivation Frederick Herzberg classified hygiene factors that are necessary to avoid unpleasantness at work. If these factors are considered inadequate by employees, then they can cause dissatisfaction with work. Apart from job security and salaries, hygiene factors also include company policies ( it should be fair and clear), fringe benefits, such as health care plans, and benefits for family members, and appropriate working conditions. () Hygiene, safe and clean working place is especially crucial for service employees. Hygiene, safe and clean working place is crucial for service employees, especially in the field of personal service, such as healthcare or food industry. To avoid defects, save time and improve the productivity of employees,...
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