Modern Psychology

Topics: Psychology, Clinical psychology, Applied psychology Pages: 7 (1443 words) Published: March 7, 2013

• It is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes • Greek word: psyche or soul; logos or study

• Anthropology
• Biology
• Chemistry
• Psychiatry
• Sociology

• Describe behavior
• Predict behavior
• Explain behavior
• Control or change behavior

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY (Early Schools of Thought) • Plato – (427-347 B.C.)
o He searched for the origin of knowledge by taking a position called rationalism • Aristotle – (384 – 322 B.C.)
o Empiricism
o Recognized the importance of knowledge

Christian and Medieval Eras
• Saint Augustine (354-430)
o Confessions – discussed the theological basis of memory, emotion, and motivation

Renaissance Period (14th-17th century)
• Rene Descartes- (1595-1650)
o Revived Plato’s proposition: Reasoning was the best means of gaining true knowledge o They rejected the authority of theologians to deal with psychological issues • John Locke (1632-1704)

o Tabularasa Principle
o Blank tablet or slate on which life experiences conveyed through the senses are written

Middle of the 19th Century
• Herman Von Helmholtz (1821-1894)
o Demonstrated through experiments that certain popular beliefs based on rationalism had no scientific basis to speak of • Gustav Fechner (1801-1887)
o Interested in the scientific study of mental processes: physical stimulation and mental experiences o Psychophysics
▪ Studies the relationship between the physical characteristics of stimuli and the conscious psychological experience they produce • Herman Ebbinghaus
o Psychology has a long past but only a short history

• Psychology would achieve its identity as a distinct academic and scientific discipline by 18th century when the German Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany, 1879 • Wundt is credited as the father of modern psychology

Structuralism (1832-1920)
• Wilhelm Wundt & Edward Titchener
o It was the first school of psychology, and focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components o Introspection
▪ Observing one’s own thoughts, feelings, or sensations Functionalism (1842-1910)
o He came to believe that psychological processes developed through the process of evolution o It is an early psychological perspective concerned with how behavior helps people adapt to their environment o “Stream of thought, consciousness and subjective life” Psychoanalysis (1856-1939)

o Sigmund Freud
o Emphasized the influence of the unconscious mind on behavior o Psychic Determinism
o Unconscious psychological conflicts in the human mind usually related to sex and aggression motivated both normal and abnormal human behavior o Freud believed that the human mind was composed of three elements: the id, ego, and superego. Behaviorism (1878-1958)

o John B. Watson
o Rejected the study of the mind and mental experiences to explain human behavior o It suggests that all behavior can be explained by environmental causes rather than by internal forces o It is focused on observable behavior

Humanistic Psychology
o Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Victor Frankl
o Focused on each individual's potential and stressed the importance of growth and self-actualization o The fundamental belief was that people are innately good, with mental and social problems resulting from deviations from this natural tendency Gestalt...
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Essay about Evolution Of Modern Psychology
  • Psychology Essay
  • Psychology Essay
  • Philosophers and Scientist of Modern Psychology Essay
  • Foundation of Psychology Essay
  • History of Psychology Essay
  • Essay about History of Modern Psychology
  • Essay on A History of Modern Psychology

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free