Decline and Fall of the Romanov Dynasty
Nicholas II as an Autocrat
Weak and indecisive leader; gentle. Uneducated.
Tsar refused to move with times; see changes and reforms.
Close relations with Queen Victoria.
Manipulated/Heavily influenced by wife Tsarina Alexandra.
Austrian princess – granddaughter of Queen Victoria.
Pressured Nicholas to preserve autocracy.
Russian 1900’s – Tsar + family ruled completely – no democracy.
King was religious AND political leader:
- Divine rule (put on Earth by God to govern).
Tsar was “appointed by God” to rule as his representative on Earth.
Most countries = constitutional monarchy – power shift monarchypeople.
Russian Empire 1900’s: Political, Social Grievances.
Largest country in the world geographically – size equates to word power.
- Concerned with frontiers and borders, protect territory; (surrounded by Turkey, Iran, China, NK) – brought into conflict with other nations.
Rivalries with Nations - Major wars w. European nations (Germany x2)/Japan, America.
Ethnic group – many minorities – Russian Orthodox majority.
Expansionism necessary – feed huge population, obtain fertile land.
Isolation – no infrastructure between villages.
Development westward = brought into contact with European affairs.
Previously isolated; exposure to diplomatic system.
Alliances – Great Britain and France (surround. Germany). Franco-Russian/Triple Entente.
Russia needed to expand East and South – China, Japan and Korea.
Secure port facilities (did not freeze); natural resources.
Working Class Anger –
Rapid industrial growth ended in 1897 – dropped to 1% by 1901 = Unemployment; wage cuts.
Demanded better working conditions – based on new found intellect and ability to read – Army recruits returning with level of literacy.
Urban workers demanded (becoming better organised): Basic civil rights.