Mini Cases in Movement Disorders
Case 1 Kenny
Kenny is a teenager who has experienced uncontrollable bodily and facial movements, various uncontrolled vocalizations, and other compulsions such as excessive hand washing and wringing. He has been treated with Clonidine, Haldol, pimozide and buspirone. This patient was diagnosed with Tourette’s Syndrome. Clonidine is a vasodilator that allows for blood to flow more easily to the brain. This lowers blood pressure and helps treat the tics the patient experiences(1). Haldol and Pimozide are antipsychotics that blocks dopamine receptors in the brain. This would help treat the compulsive behaviors (2). Buspirone is used to treat anxiety disorders. It binds to serotonin receptors in the brain. This would also help treat Kenny’s tics and behavioral issues.
The areas that to be responsible for Tourettes are the basal ganglia, frontal lobes, and cortex.These different areas are responsible for behaviors, mood, and motor control which are the areas of problem in people with Tourettes. Neurotransmitters also play a role in the disease(4).
There are other interventions that can help treat Tourette’s Syndrome. Counseling can help treat behavioral problems and teach people how to cope with their disease. Environment changes can also minimize tic episodes. Educating others about Tourettes provides awareness and more social acceptance of people(5). Tourette syndrome decreases dramatically after somebody hits puberty which could be the reason that as Kenny got older, many of his symptoms became more mild and more controllable. Also, people with Tourette's are more likely to be obsessive compulsive which is why he has a need to touch things and also why hadol and pimozide are needed.
Case 2---- Harry
Harry is in his 30s suffering from a general weakness. He has become clumsy, suffering from extreme fatigue and weight loss. He has weakened motor controls, slurred speech and displays an abnormal Babinski...
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