Microbiology

Topics: Bacteria, Microbiology, Photosynthesis Pages: 32 (7345 words) Published: May 30, 2014
Microorganisms are classified according to their structure. By means of flow charts, diagrams and tables explain the differences between Viruses, Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, Achaea and Fungi. Bacteria or bacterium are unicellular microorganisms. They are essentially only a few micrometres long and form of various shapes including the spheres, rods and spirals. A BACTERIAL CELL

Illustration courtesy of Wikipedia.

A Virus (from the Latin noun virus, meaning toxic or poison) is a sub-microscopic particle that infect the cells of a biological organism.

Illustration courtesy of mc3cb.com.

BACTERIA
VIRUS
STRUCTURE
Bacteria are unicellular organisms which are prokaryotic in nature due to the absence of a nucleus. Bacterium do not have organelles within their structure like the Endoplasmic Reticulem, The Golgi Apparatus or Vacuoles. Bacteria consist of ribosomes, a nucleoid that houses a strand of DNA material. (Extra loose DNA called plasmids can be found present for replication and reproduction.) Bacteria have a rigid wall and a cell membrane surrounding cytoplasm inside the cell. Some bacterium contains structures called flagella which aid in movement. A virus is not a cell as it is not considered as living. All viruses have a protein coat that holds a coiled string of nucleic acid. (The genetic material either RNA or DNA.) A virus has no internal cellular structure, absent of both a cell wall and membrane. OBJECTIVE

&
TREATMENTS
Dependent on the type of bacterium, bacteria can do both good and bad things to and for the human body. Bacteria can be responsible for the cause of a disease. Pathogenic bacteria cause infectious diseases like Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and Streptococcus Salmonella, though we need certain types of bacteria in order to stay alive. Human bacterial flora is a friendly bacterium that’s beneficial to the body. Gut flora is the term for the many bacteria living in our digestive tracts. To eliminate an infectious disease anti-biotics are used to fight and destroy the bacteria. Viruses are generally considered as parasites as they cannot survive without a living host cell. The virus cells objective is to multiply doing nothing good for the host cell its invading, destroying it and moving on to release further viruses. Virus cells may be used in genetic engineering with particular types of virus cells being used to destroy brain tumors. There is no medicine to eliminate virus cells without harming the host cell. Anti-viral medicines can help to ensure the symptoms become more bearable and aid in slowing the virus cells reproduction rate. We rely on our immune system to fight off these virus cells, though this can be prevented by vaccinations which lessen the suffering effects of a virus and can aid in prevention of further virus spreading. CELL WALL

Peptidoglycan and Polysaccarides present.
Cell wall absent – cell encumbered by protein coat.
ENZYMES
Yes
Yes
VIRULENCE
Yes
Yes
INFECTION
Localised
Systemic
SIZE
Larger – 1000nm
Smaller – 20-400nm
REPRODUCTION
Viruses do not grow through cell division. Instead they invade a host cell to reproduce by sabotaging the cells machinery for the use of replicating daughter viral cells. Reproduction occurs after a viral cell invades a host cell. The viral takes over the genetic memory causing it to replicate copies of viral RNA or DNA before destroying it and moving on to find a new host cell releasing further viruses.

Virus vs Bacteria- The Differences
Bacteria are considered as a living organism whereas viral cells are distinct as non- living. Viral cells are the smallest and simplest life force known. (10 to 100 times smaller in size to that of a Bacterium.) Most bacteria possess the ability to grow on non-living surfaces. Bacterial cells are inter-cellular organisms, (live in between cells) whereas viral cells are intra-cellular. (Infiltrates organisms and takes over their genetic memory so the cells normal functioning...

References: Diffen.com. 2014.Bacteria vs Virus - Difference and Comparison | Diffen. [online] Available at: http://www.diffen.com/difference/Bacteria_vs_Virus [Accessed: 04 Feb 2014]
Microbeworld.org.
Deena T Kochunni, J. H. 2014. Differencebetween Bacteria and Cyanobacteria ~ Biology Exams 4 U. [online] Available at: http://www.biologyexams4u.com/2012/10/difference-between-bacteria-and.html [Accessed: 04 Feb2014].
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