Top-Rated Free Essay

Memory Types

Powerful Essays
Memory 1
Running head: MEMORY

Memory Types
Andy Doerfler
Troy University

Memory 2
Memory Types Memory actually takes many different forms. We know that when we store a memory, we are storing information. But, what that information is and how long we retain it determines what type of memory it is. The biggest categories of memory are short-term memory (or working memory) and long-term memory, based on the amount of time the memory is stored. Both can weaken due to age, or a variety of other reasons and clinical conditions that affect memory. Short-term memory which is closely related to "working memory" is like a receptionist for the brain. As one of two main memory types, short-term memory is responsible for storing information temporarily and determining if it will be dismissed or transferred on to long-term memory. Although it sounds complicated, this process takes your short-term memory less than a minute to complete. For example, it is helping you right now by storing information from the beginning of this sentence, so that you can make sense of the end of it. Short-term memory allows recall for a period of several seconds to a minute without rehearsal. Its capacity is also very limited: George A. Miller (1956), conducted experiments showing that the store of short- term memory was 7±2 items. (Kalat, pg. 241) Modern estimates of the capacity of short-term memory are lower, typically on the order of 4–5 items, (Kowan, 2001) however, memory capacity can be increased through a process called chunking. (Kalat, pg. 241) For example, in recalling a ten-digit telephone number, a person could chunk the digits into three groups: first, the area code (such as 215), then a three-digit chunk (123) and lastly a four-digit chunk (4567).
This method of remembering telephone numbers is far more effective than attempting to remember a string of 10 digits; this is because we are able to chunk the information into meaningful groups of numbers. Herbert Simon showed that the ideal size for chunking letters and numbers, meaningful or not, was three. This may be reflected in some countries in the Memory 3 tendency to remember telephone numbers as several chunks of three numbers with the final four-number groups, generally broken down into two groups of two. Short-term memory is supported by transient patterns of neuronal communication, dependent on regions of the frontal lobe and the parietal lobe.(Fuster, 1997) More recently, scientists have begun to dive a little deeper into "short-term" brain functions and have added a separate but similar type of memory,
"working" memory. The term "working memory" was coined by Miller, Galanter, and Pribram (1960), and was used in the 1960s in the context of theories that likened the mind to a computer. Atkinson and
Shiffrin (Atkinson & Shiffrin, pg. 89-195) also used the term, "working memory" to describe their "short-term store." Working memory is the ability to actively hold information in the mind needed to do complex tasks such as reasoning, comprehension, and learning. The storage in short-term memory generally has a strictly limited capacity and duration, which means that information is available only for a certain period of time, but is not retained indefinitely. By contrast, long-term memory can store much larger quantities of information for potentially unlimited duration, sometimes a whole life time. For example, given a random seven-digit number we may remember it for only a few seconds before forgetting, suggesting it was stored in our short-term memory. On the other hand, we can remember telephone numbers for many years through repetition; this information is said to be stored in long-term memory.
Long-term memories are maintained by more stable and permanent changes in neural connections widely spread throughout the brain. The hippocampus is essential to the consolidation of information from short-term to long-term memory. (Kalat, pg. 235-269)
Without the hippocampus, new memories are unable to be stored into long-term memory, and there will be a very short attention span. Long-term memory can further be divided into four other types of memory. Memory 4 J. R. Anderson (1976) divides long-term memory into declarative or explicit and procedural
Or implicit memories. Explicit memory requires conscious recall, in that some conscious
Process must call back the information. It is sometimes called explicit memory, since it consists
Of information that is explicitly stored and retrieved. Explicit memory can be further sub- divided into semantic memory, which is memory of principles and facts, like most everything you learn in school; and episodic memory, which is memory for specific events in your life.
Semantic memory allows the encoding of abstract knowledge about the world, such as "Bagdad is the capital of Iraq". Episodic memory, on the other hand, is used for more personal memories, such as the sensations, emotions, and personal associations of a particular place or time. Though there are several types of memory, memory can be broken down into two main types: short-term and long-term. Which one you use depends on the information to be remembered.
Memories are filed in the human brain much like a computer stores files on a hard drive. One key thing to remember is garbage in, garbage out.

Memory 5

References

Miller, G. A., Galanter, E., & Pribram, K. H. (1960). “Plans and the Structure of Behavior”. Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, New York.

Atkinson, R.C. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968). “Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K.W. Spence & J.T. Spence (Eds.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Vol. 2, pp. 89-195. New York: Academic Press.

Fuster, J.M. (1997). The Prefrontal Cortex: Anatomy, physiology, and neuropsychology of the frontal lobe (2 ed.): Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins.

Cowan, N. (2001). “The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol. 24, pp. 97-185.

Anderson, J.R. (1976). Language, Memory, and Thought. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kalat, J.W. (2008, 2011). Introduction to Psychology, 9 ed, pp. 235-269: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Miller, G.A. (1956). “The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information”. Psychological Review, Vol. 63, pp. 81-97.

References: Miller, G. A., Galanter, E., & Pribram, K. H. (1960). “Plans and the Structure of Behavior”. Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, New York. Atkinson, R.C. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968). “Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K.W. Spence & J.T. Spence (Eds.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Vol. 2, pp. 89-195. New York: Academic Press. Fuster, J.M. (1997). The Prefrontal Cortex: Anatomy, physiology, and neuropsychology of the frontal lobe (2 ed.): Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins. Cowan, N. (2001). “The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol. 24, pp. 97-185. Anderson, J.R. (1976). Language, Memory, and Thought. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Kalat, J.W. (2008, 2011). Introduction to Psychology, 9 ed, pp. 235-269: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. Miller, G.A. (1956). “The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information”. Psychological Review, Vol. 63, pp. 81-97.

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    Memory and the Different Types of Memory Abstract This paper explains the differences between the each type of memory. Research will also show the roles of each memory system and how they pertain to memory. This paper will concentrate on each area of memory and will explain the problems of forgetting. Memory and the Different Types of Memory Memory can be defined as a “processes that are used to acquire, store, retain and later retrieve information. There are three major processes involved…

    • 782 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    11 36 090 Removing and installing/replacing toothed shafts of VANOS gear on left and right (S62) Special tools required: 11 2 300 • 11 7 120 • 11 7 130 • 11 7 150 • 11 7 200 • 12 6 050 • 12 6 410 • 12 6 411 • Read fault memory and make a documentary record. Open drain plug on radiator. Unfasten drain plug for coolant on right engine block. Drain and dispose of coolant. Installation: Replace drain plug sealing ring on engine block. Tightening torque, refer to 11 11 5AZ…

    • 3686 Words
    • 15 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Random Access Memory (RAM) RAM is a location within the computer system which is responsible for stacking away data on a temporary basis, so that it can be promptly accessed by the processor. The information stored in RAM is typically loaded from the computer's hard disk, and includes data related to the operating system and certain applications. When the system is switched off, RAM loses all the stored information. The data remains stored and can be retained only when the system is running.…

    • 501 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    1.2 Describe the types of memory impairment commonly experienced by individuals with dementia. Memory problems are usually the most obvious symptom in people with dementia. For example, a person with early stages of dementia might go to the shops and then cannot remember what they wanted. It is also common to misplace objects. As dementia progresses, sometimes memory loss for recent events is severe and the person may appear to be living in the past. They may think of themselves as young and not…

    • 794 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Characteristics of different memory types Cache memory Nehalem microarchitecture (Intel) Core i3 models (2 cores) 64 KB L1 cache (32 KB data + 32 KB instructions) per core; 256 KB L2 cache per core; 3 MB (mobile computer models) or 4 MB (descktop models) shared L3 cache memory; Core i5 models (2 i 4 cores) 64 KB L1 cache (32 KB data + 32 KB instructions) per core; 256 KB L2 cache per core; 3 MB, 4 MB, or 8 MB shared L3 cache memory; Core i7 models (4 cores) 64 KB L1 cache (32 KB data…

    • 517 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    a strong brand tends to have higher brand salience while weak brand have little or even none of brand salience. (2010)Therefore, it is important for manager to concern about the brand salience to higher the chance of the brand being retrieved from memory by using cues in a buying situation. As salience works in terms of brand recall, a brand needs to be linked to as many cues as possible to make the brand recalled by consumer in a purchase situation. Specifically, when a consumer wants to buy from…

    • 588 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Memory

    • 727 Words
    • 3 Pages

    life becomes a memory I mean everything the way a flower smells ,the way grandmas spaghetti sauce taste ,the color of a flower literally every interaction we have becomes a memory things that happen to us, how velvet feels on our skin .The creating of memorys happens in stages . The first stage is called Sensory Memory in this stage your mind will hold what u seen heard touched or etc exactly how you perceived it but it does not become a forever memory in this stage the memory will last only…

    • 727 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Memory

    • 701 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Outline of Memory MEMORY The ability to retain information over time –Active system that receives, stores, organizes, alters, and recovers (retrieves) MEMORY The ability to retain information over time –Active system that receives, stores, organizes, alters, and recovers (retrieves) THREE STAGES/TYPES OF MEMORY •SENSORY •SHORT TERM (WORKING) •LONG TERM THREE PROCESSES •ENCODING •STORING •RETRIEVING Stages of Memory •SENSORY (IN RAW FORM) –The first stage of memory –Stores an exact copy of incoming…

    • 701 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Memory

    • 453 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Memory Memory is defined as the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. Memory is a vital tool in learning and thinking process. We use memory in our everyday lives. I think about the first time I drove a school bus; that is a form of memory. If we do not remember anything from the past, we would never learn from our experiences. Without memories, we are exposed to unfamiliar things. Memory is viewed as a three-stage process, which include sensory…

    • 453 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Memory

    • 831 Words
    • 4 Pages

    our MEMORY. A flow of events must occur before we can say “I remember”. Memory is “an active system that receives, stores, organizes, alters and recovers information” (Lieberman, 2004). In general, memory acts like a computer. Incoming information will be encoded, it is like typing data into a computer. Next, stored the information that we typed into the system. Finally, memories must be retrieved in order to be useful. According to Parente and Stapleton (1993), they stated that “memory is a…

    • 831 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays