Memory Construction

Topics: Short-term memory, Long-term memory, Memory Pages: 3 (1118 words) Published: November 15, 2006
Abstract
Memory is of which enables us to remember things. The definition of memory is the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. With out memory we wouldn't be able to remember many things. For example; language, people, words and so on. The present might be fresh, but the past would be forgotten. People which we know might be considered as a stranger. This paper is a brief look on how memory works encoding. Also, on the differences between short term memory and long term memory.

Encoding

Everyone's memory works like a computer. You retrieve information by encoding and storing. According to Myers (2005): Like all analogies, the computer model has its limits, however. Our memories are less literal and more fragile than a computer's. Moreover, most computers process information speedily but sequentially, even while alternation between tasks. The brain is slower but does many things at once--in parallel. Many times people encode information without even trying. Trying to remember information might help retain memories, but they almost happen automatically. This can be called automatic processing. One example of encoding is Name Blocking. Name Blocking can occur in diverse situations (Schacter.2001). Engaged in casual conversation, you block on a word in the middle of a sentence. Stage actors fear those relatively rare, but embarrassing moments in a scene when they block on their lines. And, students dread the awful realization that they blocked on an exam answer they studied, and might even recall spontaneously after fishing the test. But blocking occurs most often with people's names. Daniel L Schacter says: In surveys that probe different types of memory failures in everyday life, blocking on the names of familiar people invariably emerges at or near the top of the list. Name blocking is especially troublesome for older adults: the single biggest complaint of cognitive difficulties by adults past age fifty-by...

References: Schacter, D. L. (2001). The Seven Sins of Memory (Vol. 1). New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Davelaar, E. J., Goshen-Gottstein, Y., A., A., Haarmann, H. J., & Usher, M. (2005): The demise of short-term memory revisited: empirical and computational investigation of recency effects. Psychological Review, 112, 3-42.
Talland, G. A. (1968). Disorders of Memory and Learning. Middlesex, England: Penguin Books.
Myers, D. G. (2005). Exploring Psychology (6th ed.). New York: Catherine Woods.
Atkinson, R. C. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968): Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes - In K.W. Spence & J.T. Spence (Eds.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Vol 2. London: Academic Press.
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