On completion of this module you should be able to: 1. Describe the functions and structures of the muscular system including muscle fibers, fascia, tendons, and the three types of muscles. | 2. Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce the terms related to muscle movements and how muscles are named. | 3. Recognize, define, pronounce, and spell the terms related to the pathology, and diagnostic and treatment proceedures of the muscular system |
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM:
In this module you will learn to recognize, define, spell, and pronounce a number of medical terms. You will also be tested on information found in the topics below. Also study Chapter Four of your book for more information on these topics.
Major Structures | Related Word Roots | Primary Functions | Muscles | my/o, myos/o | Make body movement possible, hold body erect, move body fluids, and produce body heat. | Fascia | fasci/o | Cover, support, and separate muscles. | Tendons | ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o | Attach muscle to bone. |
Muscles hold the body erect and make movement possible. Muscle movement generates nearly 85% of the heat that keeps the body warm. Muscles move food through the digestive system. Muscle movement such as walking, aids the flow of blood through veins as it returns to the heart. Muscle action moves fluids through ducts and tubes associated with other body systems. Muscles are composed of long, slender cells known as muscle fibers. |
Fascia (FASH-ee-ah) is the sheet or band of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscles. |
A tendon is a narrow band of non-elastic, dense, fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone. For example, the Achilles tendon attaches the gastrocnemius muscle (the major muscle of the calf of the leg) to the heel bone. Be careful not to confuse tendons with ligaments. Ligaments connect one bone to another bone. Ligaments are discussed in Chapter 3 of the text book. |
Points of Interest - Module 4
Point 1 - There are Three Basic Types of Muscle Tissue Skeletal: attach to the bones of the skeleton and are the muscles that make possible body motions such as walking and smiling.
Smooth: are located in the walls of internal organs such as the digestive tract, blood vessels, and ducts leading from glands. Their function is to move and control the flow of fluids through these structures.
Cardiac: are also known as myocardial muscles, form the muscular wall of the heart. |
Skeletal muscles are activated by electrical impulses from the nervous system.
The body has more than 600 muscles, this makes up to 40-45% of the body weight.
Point 2 - Movement of the Muscles Please refer to Figure 4.1 in the text book for details.Remember that abduction means to move away from the midline (abductor takes away). For example, during abduction the arm moves outward, away from the side of the body.Adduction is movement toward the midline of the body. For example, during adduction the arm moves inward, toward the side of the body. |
Point 3 - Muscles are Named by: 1. Origin or insertion:Sternocleidomastoid
2. Action: Flexor Carpi
4. Fiber Direction:Rectus Abdominis
5. Number of divisions:Biceps: Bi-two, ceps- head; a two headed muscle.
6. Size: Gluteus Maximus
7. Shape: Deltoid; Delta is the Greek letter or an inverted triangle. |
Point 4 - Pathology of the Muscle System:
Remember to recognize word parts and not to become overwhelmed by entire words. 1. Fasciitis - inflammation of the fascia fascio - fascia itis - inflammation 2. Tenalgia - pain in the tendon ten - tendon algia - pain or painful condition |
The cardiac muscle is very specialized. It has the appearance of striated muscle, but is can contract and expand like smooth muscle. This action causes the heart to beat. Point 5 - How to Use Word Part Identification: Examples: Myocardium - heart muscle myo - muscle card - heart uim - tissueKinesi - move or movement. This word can be spelled with a "k" or a "c" kineiology - study of movement cinema - motion picturesSternocleidomastoid - name of the muscle that helps to flex the neck and rotate the head. sterno - sternum (breast bone) cleido - clavicle (collar bone) mastoid - mastoid process of the temporal bone (mastication - to eat)
(see figure 4.11 in the text book)Epicondylitis - Inflammation of the epicondyls epi - upon or in addtion to condyl - boney structure at the end of a bone |
Reading Assignment for Module 4 Read and carefully study all of Chapter Four in the text "Medical Terminology for Health Professions" |
Word Part Reviewfor Module 4
Word Parts .........................Meaning ......... Example bi- | two, twin, double | bifurcation | -cele | hernia | cystocele | -desis | to bind, fixation used to describe procedures of the skeletal system | arthrodesis or myodesis | fascia- | fascia, fibrous band | fasciitis | -ia | abnormal | hyperkinesia | -ic | pertaining to | cardiac | kinesi/o | move or movement | hypokinesia | -lysis | loosen, set free, to destroy | tenolysis | my/o | muscle | myorrhaphy | -plegia | paralysis | paraplegia | -rrhexis | to bust, break, or rupture | myorrhexis | tax/o | coordination or order | taxonomy | ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o | tendon, stretch out, extend, strain | tendinitis | ton/o | tension, streching, tone | hypotonia | tri- | three | tripod |