Anatomy STudy Guide

Topics: Bone, Joint, Knee Pages: 5 (1526 words) Published: February 28, 2014
Skeletal System Study Guide – Use the lecture folder to help you answer these questions. The more detail you add, the better prepared for the test you will be. 1. What are the functions of the skeleton?

The five functions of the skeleton are: protecting the vital body organs, giving shape to the body and providing support to body organs and holding the body upright. Others are facilitating movement and producing of blood. The latter function is done in the bone marrow.

2. What is the difference between osteoclasts and osteoblasts? Osteoblasts create bone, while Osteoclasts break them down. The osteoblast is found on the surfaces of bone and is involved with bone deposition. The osteoclast is usually found in depressions (Howship's lacunae) at the surfaces of bony tissue and is associated with bone resorption; it is a large multi-nucleated cell derived from blood monocytes 3. How many bones do we have in our body?
300 bones at birth and by the time adulthood is reached, some bones have fused together to give a total of 206 bones in the body.

4. What do bones need in order to be healthy?
Healthy bones require calcium and vitamin D to help absorb calcium. They also need exercise.

5. Differentiate between tendons, ligaments and joints.
A tendon is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension. A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact. A ligament is a short band of tough fibrous dense regular connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen fibers. Ligaments connect bones to other bones to form a joint.

6. What are the 2 main divisions of the skeletal system? Differentiate between the 2 and what bones are within each. The two are Axial Skeleton and Perpendicular Skeleton. Axial Skeleton contains the skull, hyoid bone, auditory ossicles, vertebral column, sternum bone, and ribs. The Perpendicular skeleton contains the shoulder girdles, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, and lower limbs. 7. Give the four general categories of bones and their descriptions. Long bones are some of the longest bones in the body, such as the Femur, Humerus and Tibia but are also some of the smallest including the Metacarpals, Metatarsals and Phalanges. Short bones are defined as being approximately as wide as they are long and have a primary function of providing support and stability with little movement. Flat bones are as they sound, strong, flat plates of bone with the main function of providing protection to the bodies vital organs and being a base for muscular attachment. Irregular bones are bones in the body which do not fall into any other category, due to their non-uniform shape. Sesamoid bones are usually short or irregular bones, imbedded in a tendon. The most obvious example of this is the Patella (knee cap) which sits within the Patella or Quadriceps tendon. 8. What is the most commonly broken bone in the body? A clavicle fracture is a bone fracture in the clavicle, or collarbone. It is the most common 9. What are the cranial bones?The eight cranial bones are separated by sutures : one frontal bone, two parietal bones, two temporal bones, one occipital bone, one sphenoid bone, and one ethmoid bone. 10. What are sutures (of the skeletal system) and give 2 examples? It is a fairly rigid joint between two or more hard elements of an organism. The two examples are cranial sutures and in the ankles of land vertebrates. 11. How many facial bones are there? What are they? There are 14 facial bones and they are Nasal bones, Lacrimal bones, Maxillaries Zogmatic bones, Palatines bones, Inferior nasal, Concha ,Vomer, and Mandible. 12. What are the 3 parts of the sternum?The sternum is the medical name for the breastbone, a long, narrow, flat plate that forms the center of the front of the chest. It develops in three parts: an upper portion, or manubrium, a middle body, and a lower xiphoid process that projects down. 13....
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