Maslow's theory of motivation includes five increasingly higher-level needs. Maslow calls these needs physiological, (hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, etc), security, (safety, protection from physical and emotional harm) social, (affection, belonging, acceptance, friendship) self-esteem, (self respect, autonomy, achievement, status, recognition, attention) and self-actualization, (doing things) 1. Maslow points out that hierarchy is dynamic, the dominant need is always shifting. The hierarchy does not exist by itself, but is affected by the situation and the general culture. Satisfaction is relative. A satisfied need no longer motivates people. (See chart on page 3.) .
Herzberg similarly divides his theory of motivation into two levels and they are (lower-level) physiological, safety, social and (higher-level) achievement and self actualization needs1. Herzberg calls the two factors hygiene and motivation factors. Hygiene factors are concerned with factors associated with the job itself but are not directly a part of it. Typically, this is salary, although other factors which will often act as hygiene factors include perceived differences with others, job security, working conditions, the quality of management, administration, and interpersonal relations. These factors do not lead to higher levels of motivation but without them there is dissatisfaction. The most important part of this theory of motivation is the main motivating factors. Motivation factors are concerned with what people actually do on the job. The motivators are achievement recognition, growth, advancement, and interest in the job Motivators are those factors directly concerned with the satisfaction gained from a job and they can lead to satisfaction because of the need for growth and a sense of self-achievement. (See chart on page 4)
The two are similar in that they both depict hierarchical needs. In both theories lower-level needs must be satisfied first. Each theory describes the...
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