Biological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality
University of Phoenix PSY 250
June 2, 2014
Biological and Humanistic Approached to Personality
Through the use of this paper the agreement between Maslow and Rogers when it comes to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs will be shown. It will also focus on the humanistic and biological approaches to personality. According to Orana (2009), Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a theory that is considered to still be valid today in the areas of management training, personal development, and the understanding of the motivation of humans. This theory was first introduced in the book Personality and Motivation which was published in 1954, and written by Maslow. Maslow
In 1943 Maslow wrote a paper titled “A Theory of Human Motivation”, this is where his concept of a hierarchy of needs was first introduced. The basis of this hierarchy is that each person must be motivated when it comes to fulfilling their basic needs first before they are at all able to move on to the level of needs that will come next. The bottom part of his pyramid of needs covered our most basic of needs such as food and water, and the needs that are considered harder to reach are put on the top. Throughout the progression of the pyramid a person will become my socially and psychologically invested in the needs they are trying to meet. Both Maslow and Rogers believed and put emphasis on what is known as self-actualization. Maslow based his way of reaching this on five levels of needs. The first level is where the basic needs or the physiological needs. This includes the needs that we have for survival such as food, water, and shelter. It was the belief of Maslow that these were the most important of the needs and therefore once the needs were met all other needs could be reached, but not until this needs were met. On the second level we find needs that are called security needs which are considered important for our survival as well. While important they are not as important to our survival as our basic needs are which is why they are secondary to our basic needs. Some good examples of these types of needs would be stable shelter, gainful employment, and health insurance. Level three focuses on the social needs of a person. Needs such as wanting to belong, of affection, and the need of love all fall into this category. These needs while important are not as important as the ones discussed and therefore have been put on the third tier of the hierarchy. According to Cherry (2010), Maslow believed that the void for acceptance and companionship was filled through the relationships that were formed in this tier. On the fourth level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs esteem can be found, once all of the previous levels have been fulfilled, this is when this level becomes important. This level includes, social recognition, self-worth, accomplishments, and of course self esteem. The fifth and final level is where self actualization is met, and is placed on the top of the hierarchy because it is the hardest to fulfill. People who have reached this category do not care what other think, they are considered self-aware, and personal growth is of great concern to them (Cherry, 2010). It was Maslow’s belief that when it came to behaviorism and psychoanalysis to much focus was placed on aspects of humans that were negative. In his view the positive aspects such as love, laughter, and happiness should be the concentration because each of these exists within humans and then resilience, growth, and achievement could be emphasized. He disagreed that the big five were the most important personality traits, and argued that it was actual the hierarchy to reach that level of self actualization that was most important. He further believed in what he calls peak experiences, these were moments of rarity that...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document