Literature Review Green Computing in Data Centers

Topics: Efficient energy use, Scheduling algorithm, Entropy Pages: 20 (5529 words) Published: August 27, 2013
Green Computing in Data Centers

Literature review 2nd Draft

100112V - E.A.S.D.Edirisinghe
100132G - W.V.D.Fernando
100440A - R.H.T.D.Ranasinghe
100444N - M.C.S.Ranathunghe
100476M - P.L.B.Sampath

Table of Contents

1. Introduction3
2. Hardware optimizations for green data centers.3
2.1 Choosing environmentally friendly components.3
2.2 Increasing the efficiency of the servers through their mechanical design4
2.3 Using Low-power low-cost CPUs4
2.4 Energy Efficient Cooling Solutions4
2.4.1 Economizer Systems5
2.4.2 Supplemental Cooling5
2.5 Emergy5
3. Software optimizations for green data centers.6
3.1 Runtime energy consumption calculation model6
3.2 Energy-Aware Scheduling Algorithm7
3.2.1 Energy Aware Scheduling by Minimizing Duplication algorithm8
3.2.2 Experimental results and analysis9
3.3 Dynamic provisioning and Load dispatching9
3.3.1 Energy aware server provisioning10
3.3.2 Forecast-based provisioning10 Short-term load forecasting10
3.3.3 Load Dispatching Algorithm12 Load balancing12
3.3.4 Evaluation of forecast provisioning and load balancing12
3.4 Incorporating energy efficient characteristics to data center applications13
4. Conclusion14
5. References15
Work Done By Each Member16

1. Introduction

Changes in the environment due to human activities have been a major concern for mankind since the industrial revolution. Global warming and climate change along with the depletion of vital earth resources have become issues that are being paid more and more attention as the effect of them become visible in our daily lives. Technologies that try to minimize their effects on the environment are called green technologies and they have become quintessential in the modern world. Green computing is concerned with trying to minimize the environmental effort of the IT business on the environment.

With the rapid development and growth of the internet throughout the world in the last few decades the demand for Data centers to serve the estimated 2.7 billion internet users have been growing rapidly. As the number of data centers grows, their effects on the environment grow with them. In addition to the cost of manufacturing the parts necessary to build them, data centers require large amounts of energy to function. It has been estimated that data centers likely account for about 1% of the total energy consumption in the whole world [1]. This energy mainly comes from unsustainable methods such as fossil fuels. This results in the emission of greenhouse gases detrimental to the environment.

The environmental impact of a datacenter doesn't just come from the energy used at the runtime of the server. It also depends on other factors such as environmental impact at manufacturing, impact of disposal, etc. Studies have found out that the environmental effect in runtime is only about 50% of the total effect from a data center [2]. So when considering the impact of data centers on the environment, it is very important to consider the total lifetime effect.

There are two main sides that need focus when designing a green data center, hardware and infrastructure side of the datacenter and the software side of the datacenter. Hardware side focuses on a good environmentally friendly design of the datacenter. This means making good decisions at the designing phase of the datacenter that will yield better results for the environment in the future. While a good design is good for the environment it is usually also more suitable financially as it reduces the operational energy cost of the datacenter. Software side focuses on making better use of the existing hardware and using them in an optimal manner as well as incorporating energy characteristics to applications from the ground up that will yield better results to the environment by reducing the energy consumption.

2. Hardware optimizations for green data centers.


References: [1] Koomey, Jonathan. 2008. "Worldwide electricity used in data centers." Environmental Research Letters. vol. 3, no. 034008. September 23.
[2] Jichuan Chang, Justin Meza, Parthasarathy Ranganathan, Cullen Bash, and Amip Shah
[3] Jichuan Chang, Justin Meza, Parthasarathy Ranganathan, Amip Shah, Rocky Shih, and Cullen Bash. 2012. Totally green: evaluating and designing servers for lifecycle environmental impact.SIGARCH Comput. Archit. News 40, 1 (March 2012), 25-36.
[4] O
[16] Barath Raghavan and Justin Ma. 2011. The energy and emergy of the internet. In Proceedings of the 10th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets-X). ACM, New York, NY, USA, Article 9.
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