Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. This definition is similar to Northouse's (2007, p3) definition “Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal”. Also many of the authors defined the term leadership according to Alan Keith of Genentech stated that, "Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen”. These leaderships are one of the most important factors for any organization’s development and its progress. In this essay defines how a particular model of leadership affects an organization.
There are many models like
➢ Action Centred Leadership
➢ Fielders Contingency model
➢ Path goal model
Let we will discuss about the first two models and how they are contributing affect in the organization.
2. ACTION CENTRED LEADERSHIP
This model proposed by John Adair (1973) argued that it is not who you are but what you do which establishes you as a leader. A leader needs to balance the needs of the task, the team and the individual, shown clearly in the diagram below in his 3 circle model. The effective leader carries out the functions and demonstrates the behaviours appropriate to the circles, varying the level according to the needs of the situation. The leader whilst balancing the three circles, sits in his/her helicopter above the process, ensuring the best possible overview of what is happening.
Good managers and leaders should have full command of the three main areas of the Action Centred Leadership model, and should be able to use each of the elements according to the situation. Being able to do all of these things, and keep the right balance, gets results, builds morale, improves quality, develops teams and productivity, and is the mark of a successful manager and leader.
. Action Centred Leadership by John Adair
2.1 Leaders Behaviour under Task
➢ Providing clear Objectives
➢ Providing appropriate procedures
➢ Ensuring there is evidence of progress
➢ Ensuring avoidance of digression
➢ Ensuring deadlines are met
2.2 Leaders Behaviour under Team
➢ Trust & Openness
➢ Sense of purpose
2.3 Leaders Behaviour under Individual
➢ To be included
➢ To make a contribution
➢ To be respected
➢ To receive Feedback
➢ To feel safe
➢ To grow
Adair used the original word meanings to emphasise this: Leadership is an ancient ability about deciding direction, from an Anglo-Saxon word meaning the road or path ahead; knowing the next step and then taking others with you to it. Managing is a later concept, from Latin 'manus', meaning hand, and more associated with handling a system or machine of some kind. The original concept of managing began in the 19th century when engineers and accountants started to become entrepreneurs.
There are valuable elements of management not necessarily found in leadership, eg administration and managing resources. Leadership on the other hand contains elements not necessarily found in management, e.g., inspiring others through the leader's own enthusiasm and commitment.
The Action Centred Leadership model is Adair's best known work, in which the three elements - Achieving the Task, Developing the Team and Developing Individuals - are mutually dependent, as well as being separately essential to the overall leadership role.
Importantly as well, Adair set out these core functions of leadership and says they are vital to the Action Centred Leadership model:
• Planning - seeking...
References: . Kouzes, J., and Posner, B. (2007). The Leadership Challenge. CA: Jossey Bass.
Processes and Functions, 1996, London CIPD ISBN 0-85292-438-0
. Fiedler, F.E. (1967) A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness, New York: McGraw-Hill.
. Fiedler, F.E. (1997) Directory of the American Psychological Association, Chicago: St
James Press, 419
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