Kingdom Fungi

Topics: Fungus, Basidiomycota, Ascomycota Pages: 4 (539 words) Published: April 22, 2013
Chapter 21 Notes: Kingdom Fungi!Name_________________________

21-1: The Kingdom Fungi

A. What Are Fungi?
Fungi include MANY DIFFERENT types of organisms
From tiny yeast cells
To the one of the largest organisms in the world!

Fungi are:
Multicellular (except for yeasts)
Decomposers: decompose dead and decaying material
-Secrete enzymes OUTSIDE bodies
- Absorb digested nutrients

Hyphae: long, slender, root-like filament
Septa: cross-walls across hyphae (not in all hyphae)
Mycelium: mat of interwoven hyphae
o Large surface area = max food absorption

Fruiting body: reproductive structures, like mushrooms
o Many can develop from same mycelium
o “fairy rings”
Entire mycelium is haploid!
o (1 set of chromosomes)

B. Structure & Function of Fungi
Fungi cells have cell walls
-Contain carbohydrate “chitin” also found in exoskeletons Unlike plants:
-Fungi DON’T have chlorophyll
-Fungi have chitin in cell walls (plants have cellulose)

C. Reproduction in Fungi
Most fungi reproduce BOTH asexually and sexually
Asexual Reproduction:
Sporangia at the tip of sporangiophores produce haploid spores Fragmentation (breaking off) of hyphae can also produce new mycelia

Sexual reproduction
Fungi form hyphae of opposite “Sex”
o Called “+” & “-“
The + & - hyphae fuse and form gametangia:
o Makes gametes
o Form a diploid zygote
o Zygote undergoes meiosis: haploid once again!

D. How Fungi Spread
Fungal spores travel VERY easily in the air
All they need is a good “landing place” with moisture & food Some fungi have special adaptations for spreading spores

21-2: Classification of Fungi

A. 4 Phyla of Fungi:
Named for their reproductive structures!

B. Phylum Zygomycota
“Common molds”
o On bread, cheese, etc.
Black bread mold: Rhizopus...
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