Kingdom Fungi

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Topics: Fungus
Chapter 21 Notes: Kingdom Fungi! Name_________________________

21-1: The Kingdom Fungi

A. What Are Fungi?
Fungi include MANY DIFFERENT types of organisms
From tiny yeast cells
To the one of the largest organisms in the world!

Fungi are:
Multicellular (except for yeasts)
Eukaryotic
Heterotrophic
Decomposers: decompose dead and decaying material -Recyclers! -Secrete enzymes OUTSIDE bodies - Absorb digested nutrients

Hyphae: long, slender, root-like filament
Septa: cross-walls across hyphae (not in all hyphae)
Mycelium: mat of interwoven hyphae o Large surface area = max food absorption

Fruiting body: reproductive structures, like mushrooms o Many can develop from same mycelium o “fairy rings”
Entire mycelium is haploid! o (1 set of chromosomes)

B. Structure & Function of Fungi
Fungi cells have cell walls -Contain carbohydrate “chitin” also found in exoskeletons
Unlike plants: -Fungi DON’T have chlorophyll -Fungi have chitin in cell walls (plants have cellulose)

C. Reproduction in Fungi
Most fungi reproduce BOTH asexually and sexually
Asexual Reproduction:
Sporangia at the tip of sporangiophores produce haploid spores
Fragmentation (breaking off) of hyphae can also produce new mycelia

Sexual reproduction
Fungi form hyphae of opposite “Sex” o Called “+” & “-“
The + & - hyphae fuse and form gametangia: o Makes gametes o Form a diploid zygote o Zygote undergoes meiosis: haploid once again!

D. How Fungi Spread
Fungal spores travel VERY easily in the air
All they need is a good “landing place” with moisture & food
Some fungi have special adaptations for spreading spores

21-2: Classification of Fungi

A. 4 Phyla of Fungi:
Zygomycota
Ascomycota
Basidiomycota
Deuteromycota
Named for their reproductive structures!

B. Phylum Zygomycota
“Common molds” o On bread, cheese, etc.
Black bread mold: Rhizopus

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