Student Name: Veronica Ryan
Student No: 20120035
Lecturer: Prof: Wamsley
Due Date: 23 August 2013
____________________________________________________________________ Emmanuel Kant was an influential German Philosopher. He was born in Konigsberg in Prussia to Protestant parents he lived from 1724 to 1804. Kant observed the world around him and observed that that every culture religion and society has moral law whether they are obeyed or not. The Formula of Universal Law- Act only in accordance with that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it become a universal law.
The Formula of Humanity- Act so that you use humanity, whether in your own person or that of another, always at the same time as an end, never merely as a means. The Formula of the Kingdom of Ends- Act in accordance with the maxims of a member giving universal laws for a merely possible kingdom of ends. The moral duty is what we should be doing. Good is defined as doing what is right and avoiding doing wrong. We have a duty to act in such a way that our actions are moral even if it produces unfavourable results. What is good, according to Kant “Nothing is good but a good will”. (Good intentions). It is good to be creative or to have good fortune with good outcomes the world becomes a better place. Goodwill is having the good intention to perform one’s duty. The consequences of our actions do not make an action good but rather the goodwill. What is having a good will? Kant proposes that when someone acts out of goodwill that is when someone is acting out of duty. According to Kant “Duty should be done for the sake and duty alone”. How do we know our duty in a certain situation? Duty has nothing to do with a certain situation or what happens all that matters is the decision is good and the outcome is good. Kant suggests act as if our decision applies to all people at all times. It is always in order to tell lies if the outcome is favourable? Kant would disagree with this. When we act purely out of duty we act reasonably in a manner that we fulfil our duties. Having goodwill is to perform one’s duty It is our duty to do our duty even though we might not be rewarded in this life but we will be rewarded in the next life. Deontological Ethics.
Kant Deontological theory of ethics it is linked to moral law of ethics, especially that branch dealing with duty, moral obligation, and right action. Origin: 1820–30; Greek deont- that which is binding (stem of déo) (Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913), edited by Noah Porter.) The word deontology comes from the Greek word meaning duty (deon) and science (or study) of (logos). In moral philosophy, deontological ethics Ethical are theories that maintain that the moral rightness or wrongness of an action depends on its intrinsic qualities. (Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913), edited by Noah Porter). A Quote from Kant “Awe and wonder fills the mind”.
“Starry heavens a metaphor (scientific absolutism) above and the moral law within”. Like gravity and science these are laws which are absolute as well as moral laws. We have a choice we can all still identify the moral law: e.g. do not steal. Kantian deontological theory of ethics is an absolutes theory something which is considered wrong i.e. suicide will always be wrong. Kant argues that morality is rooted in reason; he states that the demands of morality are unconditional or categorical and it presupposes freedom, we have a choice and can identify and rationally identify morality. Kant states that morality must be unconditional it has to be categorical. Kant distinguishes between categorical imperatives from hypothetical ones. The categorical imperative is not about desires or goals but rather about personal well-being. Categorical imperatives are absolute and universal. Categorical imperative is necessary truth and cannot be without self-contradiction or irrationality. The Universal Law
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