2. "Intelligence is not a single thing, but relies on a ‘toolkit’ of different complex cognitive abilities (e.g. Emery & Clayton, 2004)". Discuss the validity of this statement Definition
Seeing intelligence not just as a single thing but a tool kit that combine a number of abilities is a very important aspect in the generalization of intelligence in relation to human beings and other animals as well. Charles Spearman studied students' grades in various subjects. The statistical method Spearman used compares variability across multiple tasks, and is called factor analysis. Spearman found that high-performing students tend to do well across all subjects, not just in the subjects that they're especially strong in. A broad definition of intelligence was proposed by a group of psychologists led by Ulric Neisser. They suggest that intelligence is the 'ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning and to overcome obstacles by taking thought.' According to Neisser and his colleagues, people are smart if they can succeed at a variety of interrelated tasks. Research shows that we are not born with a biologically predetermined amount of intelligence that remains fixed for our whole lives. Environmental influences have been shown to impact test results. Another psychologist Raymond Cattel noticed that there are two different forms of intelligence. Fluid intelligence or the ability to learn new ways of doing things, and crystallized intelligence, or the accumulation of knowledge throughout our whole lives, this proposition of intelligence has been shown to change over time. As a result as you age through adulthood, crystallized intelligence is increasing, whereas fluid intelligence is decreasing after late adolescence. Intelligence is affected by both genetic and environmental factors; it's the result of both nature and nurture. Genetic predisposition and environmental...
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