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japanese occupation

By John_Rey Jan 02, 2014 1287 Words
JAPANESE OCCUPATION & the SECOND REPUBLIC
JAPANESE MILITARY ADMINISTRATION
1. Japanese Military Administration established on Jan. 03, 1942 by the Japanese High Command. a. First Director-General – Maj. Gen Yoshihide Hayashi; succeeded by Maj. Gen. Takazi Wachi. 2. Military rule by the Japanese conquerors.

a. All government officials and employees were ordered to returned to their post. b. Military proclamation declared that for one Japanese killed by the population ten prominent Filipino would be executed. c. Use of transmitters and radio antennae was banned.

d. All radio receiving sets were reconditioned.
e. Blackout and curfew were maintained in manila and other cities. f. All Allied properties, arms, gasoline supply, and metals were confiscated. Japanese war notes were circulated in various denominations, from one-centavo paper note to P1,000-note. PHILIPPINE EXECUTIVE COMMISSION

1. The Philippine Executive Commission was a puppet civil government set up by the Japanese conquerors. a. Established in Manila by the Japanese Military Administration. b. Composed of Jorge B. Vargas chairman and six other Filipinos as Department Secretaries- Benigno S. Aquino, Commissioner of the interior; Antonio de las Alas Commissioner of Finance; Jose P. Laurel, Commissioner of Justice; Rafael Alunan, Commissioner of Agriculture and Commerce; Claro M. Recto, Commissioner of Education, Health and Public Welfare; and Quintin Paredes, Commissioner of Public Works and Communications. Jose Yulo was named chief of the Supreme Court. c. A Philippine Council of State was created to act as advisory body to the Executive Commission. It was composed of the 32 signers of the “ Letter of Response” to the High Japanese wishes. 2. Two Filipino leaders refused to collaborate with the Japanese and did not accept any job under the conquerors. They were Dr. Jose Fabella, member of President Quezon`s pre-war Cabinet , and Atty. Alfonso Mendoza, former member of the National Assembly.

JAPANESE PROPAGANDA
1. Hodoo-Bu ( Propaganda Section of the Japanese Army ) – distributed propaganda posters, with catchy slogans: “ Asia Is One!” “ Asia for the Asians!” and “ Philippines for Filipinos!” 2. All means of mass media ( newspapers, radio, movies, and stage shows ) were controlled by the Japanese. Books and periodicals containing democracy and pro-American ideas were censored . Only published materials praising Japan and glorifying her culture and history were permitted to read by the Filipinos. 3. Schools were placed under strict Japanese control. All textbooks were examined and censored. Teaching of Nippongo ( Japanese language ) was compulsory. “ Nippongo Week “ was celebrated annually in schools, towns , and cities in order to promote the study of the Japanese Language. 4. Visits of Japanese artists, actresses, musicians, writers and priests to the Philippines. 5. Various institutes for ispiritual rejuvenation were established for government employees, students, and former USAFFE soldiers. Those who attended these rejuvenation institutes were “brained washed”. 6. Neighborhood association were created towns and cities.

They served as agencies of Japanese Propaganda.
7. KALIBAPI ( Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas ) –the only political organization allowed to exist. It had various units, such as the Junior KALIBAPI, Women`s Auxiliary Service , KALIBAPI Labor Institute, and KALIBAPI Leaders` Institute. FAILURE OF JAPANESE PROPAGANDA

1. Japanese Propaganda in the Philippines failed because of two reasons: (1) Filipinos were too intelligent to be deceived by the sugar-coated Japanese Propaganda.(2) Love of freedom and God is deeply rooted in Filipino soul and no amount of Japanese propaganda could destroy it.(3) Japanese atrocities and brutal acts inflamed Filipino hatred to the Japanese and their ideas. PREMIER TOJO and PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE

1. Japan post as a liberator of Asian nations against Western imperialism. She claimed that her war aim was to establish a “ Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere” under her leadership in order to achieve the happiness and prosperity of all Asians. 2. In a speech before the Imperial Diet, Premier General Hideki Tojo promised to give independence to the Filipinos, on. Jan. 21, 1942.a. He repeated the promise in another speech on Jan. 28 1943. 3. Premier Tojo`s visit in Manila a. On May 6 , 1943 , Tojo visited Manila.b. He addressed a big rally , headed by Vargas, at the Luneta 4. In June 16, 1943, he announced to the Imperial Diet that the Philippines deserves to be free. THE FRAMING OF THE CONSTITUTION

1. Upon orders from Tokyo, the Preparatory Commission for Philippine Independence was established.a. Headed by Dr . Jose P. Laurel.b. 19 members, including Gen. E. Aguinaldo, Sultan Alaoya Alonto, C. M. Recto, Vargas, Benigno S. Aquino, etc. 2. The making of the Constitution was finished by the PCPI.a. On Sept. 4, 1943 – PCPI signed the Constitution in presence of large crowd.b. On Sept. 7 - ratification of the Constitution by the General Assembly of KALIBAPI delegates. THE CONSTITUTION OF PUPPET REPUBLIC

1. Constitution of our Republic under Japan.a. Written in two languages – Tagalog and English.b. Consisted of a preamble and 12 articles. 2. Important Provisions.(1) It provided for a “ Republic” based on separation of powers- Executive, Legislative, and Judicial.(2) The Constitution was temporary in nature, for it will exist only during the period of the war.(3) The Executive power was vested in a President, assisted by the Department Secretaries. No office of Vice- President.(4) The Legislative power was exercised by a National Assembly consisting of one house.(5) The Judicial power was vested in the Supreme Courts and other courts to be created by law.(6) Tagalog was the National language of the Philippines.(7) Within one year after the end of the war, the Filipino people would elect delegates to a constitutional convention which shall make the permanent constitution of the Philippine Republic.

BIRTH OF OUR JAPANESE-SPONSORED REPUBLIC
1. This republic was inaugurated in Manila on October 14, 1943.a. Dr . Jose P. Laurel was sworn into office as President of the Republic.b. He was “ elected” President by the National Assembly headed by Speaker Aquino.c. Inaugurated ceremony attended by Gen. Sigenori Kuroda, Commander-in-chief of the Japanese Imperial Forces in the Philippines. 2. With the birth of the Republic, the Philippine Executive Commission ended. 3. To win Filipino support, the Japanese authorities allowed the use of the Filipino flag and the singing of the Philippine National Anthem. 4. Filipinos were indifferent to their new republic.a. They knew it was a puppet republic.b. They ignored the constitution made by the PCPI, and decisively called the PCPI “Please Cancel the Philippine Independence.”c. Notwithstanding the establishment of the republic, they continued to resist Japanese invasion and remained loyal to America. FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE REPUBLIC

1. The Japanese sponsored Philippine Republic was recognized by the Axis powers ( Japan, Nanking Government of China, Manchukuo, Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, Burma, Croatin, Slovakia ,Bulgaria, Hungary and Thailand. Spain under Franco also recognized the Japanese-sponsored Republic. 2. The Philippines was represented in Tokyo by a Philippine Embassy under Ambassador Vargas. 3. Japan was represented in Manila by a Japanese Embassy under Ambassador Syozo Murata. 4. First foreign treaty signed by our Japanese-sponsored Republic was the Japan Philippine Pact of Alliance, signed at Malacanang on Oct. 14, 1943.(a) Provisions of this Treaty. (1) Political and Economic cooperation between Japan and the Philippines.(2) Military cooperation is such cooperation which was needed to defend the Philippine territory and independence. 5. Philippine participation in the “Assembly of Greater East Asiatic Nations “held at Tokyo, Nov. 5-6, 1943.a. Philippine delegation consisted of President Laurel (chairman), Claro M. Recto ( Minister of Foreign Affairs ), Quintin Paredes ( Minister of Public Works and Communications ), and Assemblyman Jose B. Laurel, Jr.b. This conference of Asian nations under Japan`s leadership adopted the “Pacific Charter “(approved on Nov. 6, 1943) which set forth the principles for the making of Greater East Asia. POLITICAL CHANGES UNDER THE REPUBLIC

1. Executive Departments were renamed Ministries.Each Ministry was headed by a minister, assisted by a vice-minister. 2. New offices and bureaus organized, such as Bureau of Constabulary. Council of Scientists, BIBA ( Bigasang Bayan), NADISCO (National Commodities Procurement and Distribution Corporation Company), RICOA ( Rice and Corn Administration), and LAMATRA ( Land and Maritime Transportation Company). 3. Judiciary was recognized. Five Court of Appeals were created, one for each of the five Judicial Districts.

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