There was a speech of the two authors James and Gray: “Writing, itself, is a process; the act of transforming thought into print involves a nonlinear sequence of creative acts or stages”. “Writing is a process of coming into being” (Sondra Perl, 1980). Writing is a form of communication, expressing the writer’s thoughts and feelings through writing after saying. It includes, at least in its typical form, visual marks on a surface. It is “a conventional system of representing language by means of visual marks” . In English, there are four skills: listening; speaking, reading and writing skills, of which, writing is a skill that is used to communicate indirectly, without face-to-face interaction Tarigan (1984), …show more content…
J. DeVito (1965) said that the text contained the longer and less common words and a larger diversity of words. Drieman (1962) found that writing tends to be less abundant than speech. The speakers generally repeat themselves, either verbatim or in paraphrase. On the other hand, people tend to use more words in speech than in writing to convey the same basic message (Horowitz & Newman, 1964; Wilkinson, 1972) and writing itself tends to be syntactically more complex and more detailed and accurate than speech (Horowitz & Berknowitz, 1967; Wilkinson, 1972), and some kinds of complex conversation structures or organizations may be more natural than in …show more content…
THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ACADEMIC WRITING
Successful writing academic involves the ability to incorporate the following concepts in the text of the author.
There must be the smooth movement or flow between sentences and paragraphs. The sentence must “stick together” (Harmer, 2004). The content is the most important feature of communication. The use of explicit markers, linking a topic from this sentence to the next, is very important. The end of a sentence prepares the readers for the beginning of the next one (Mc Cool, 2009). The cohesion of writing focuses on the grammatical aspects of writing.
The meaning of what the authors are intending to communicate is absolutely clear and obvious, the readers do not have to read between the lines to guess what they are saying. Strunk and White (1999) encouraged the writers to use a level of speech and language that is accessible to the readers, not to use clichés, jargon or long or unfamiliar words. According to Joseph (1990), in order to make readers feel what they are reading is clear and direct, “the subjects of the sentences name the cast of characters and the verbs that go with those subjects name the crucial actions those characters are part of”