When you think of Italy the first thing that people think of is ancient Rome, the coliseum, and the most famous Italian Julius Caesar. What most people do not know is of what happened in modern Italy during the 20th century, Economic, social, and political changes that made Italy what it is today.
Italy's history during the 20th century is filled with war and many political changes. In World War I Italy tried to remain neutral but could not, Italy joined the allied forces. From 1922 to 1943 Benito Mussolini ruled Italy, and initially in World War II he aided Adolph Hitler. ("ITALY" 317). In 1943 the Italian government over through fascism and the country cave its support to the allies. ("ITALY" 317)
During the 1970's political violence and terrorism marked Italy (ITALY, MSN). Also in the 1980's conflicts within the coalition government led to many frequent government collapses ("ITALY" 317).
The social lives of the people in Italy have gone through many changes during the 20th century with new art forms, more religious freedoms, education, and the family
Art is and has been a major role in Italian culture and society. One of the major artistic movements was the idea of Futurism. Futurism was a movement in art that originated in Italy during the early 20th century (ITALY, MSN); on the other hand in America artists were more focused on Realism during this time period. Futurism was made famous by Filippo Marinetti who condemned all traditional art to be too static (MACHIAVELLI 61). One of the styles that emerged out of futurism was called cubism (ITALY, MSN).
Religion is a major part of Italian culture. The main religion in Italy today is Roman Catholicism. However, in America Christianity is the main religion. In Italy, the Roman Catholicism makes up about ninety percent and about ten percent of Italians are Protestant, Muslim, and Jewish (ITALY, CIA). However this is not the case ancient Italy where mostly everybody was Roman Catholic.
Education in Italy is much like it is in America. The modern educational system of Italy was formed in 1859, when a law was made providing a complete school system that extended from the elementary through the university levels. (ITALY, MSN)
The maintaining of close family ties has always been an important tradition in Italy. The family has its strongest roots in small farming communities that existed throughout the nation before the industrialization ("ITALY." 317). However most Italians no longer live on farms and in villages, most Italians moved into the city and in more urban areas to find a better life, but still the family is one of the most important things in Italy today.
Like America, Italy's government today is a republic. However, during the span of the 20th century Italy's Government has changed.
Giovanni Giolitti was a main figure in Italian politics until World War I (ITALY, MSN). Giolitti served as Prime Minister of Italy for 5 terms, 1892 through 1921(ITALY, MSN). He adopted more appeasing tactics and attempted to address popular grievances through social welfare and reform actions (ITALY, MSN). During his terms he was responsible for the National Insurance Act and the introduction of universal male suffrage (ITALY, MASN). At the start of World War I, Giolitti tried to keep Italy neutral but was unsuccessful (ITALY, MSN).
During the World War II period, Italian ruler Benito Mussolini ruled a fascist Italy. Benito Mussolini was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 to 1943 (ITALY, CIA). Under Mussolini fascism promised the Italians greatness but delivered only humiliation (MACHIAVELLI 61) . Later Mussolini entered World War 2 with an alliance with Germany. Mussolini gradually transformed Italy's government into a dictatorship (ITALY, MSN). The birth of the Italian Republic came on June 2nd 1946 when the monarchy was abolished by popular referendum, hence the name Italian Republic (ITALY, CIA). Italy is divided into...
Cited: 1. Alward, Mary M. "Fiat History." Life in Italy. 21 Mar. 2007
2. "Italy." CIA. 15 Mar. 2007. 18 March. 2007. https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/it.html
3. "Italy." CultureGrams 2007 World Education. Loose-leaf ed. Provo
UT: Pro Quest Information and Learning 2(2006) pg. 317
4. "Italy." MSN. 2007. 21 Mar. 2007.
5. "Italy People and Places". Chicago, IL: World Book Inc. 200-202.
6. "Machiavelli, Francesca", ed. Italy. New York City, 1996. pg. 61-65.
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