Assess the effect of foreign influences on Italian unification.
1) Introduction :
a) One of the most important lessons learned from the 1848 revolutions was that Austria could not be ejected from Italy without the help of foreign allies
b) Influence-pressure or persuasion to sway things in a certain way.
c) Throughout the course of the Italian unification movement, few foreign nations exercised influence: Sardinia, France, Austria, and possibly Prussia and the German states.
d) When analyzing foreign influence on unification, split into two parts:- process/events and result.
e) Foreign nations had a great impact on the process.
f) Sardinia had only major lasting effect on result.
2) Sardinia :
a) Sardinia had a great interest in the unification of Italy.
* Many Sardinians were ethnically Italian.
* Count Camillo Benso di Cavour wished to free Italy of foreign domination and bring about political transformation on the peninsula (nationalist).
* Became PM in 1852.
* One of his goals was to strengthen Sicily.
* Publicized Italian problem at Paris peace conference for Crimean War.
c) Sardinia was the only nation to gain a diplomatic advantage from the Crimean war-European nations supported Sardinia against Austria.
3) France :
a) Four years after the Crimean War, Sardinia succeeded in forming an alliance with Louis Napoleon of France.
b) France had interest in central Italian states.
c) Plombières Alliance - July 20,1858.
* Secret agreement between Cavour and Louis Napoleon at a spa.
* Napoleon promised to join war to drive Austria out of Italy, as long as it could be justified in the eyes of diplomacy.
* Reorganized as confederation of four states :- Upper, central, Papal, Two Sicilies.
* Nice and Savoy were given to France.
* Sardinia needed only provoke a war with Austria.
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