Difference between data and Information
Data is raw unprocessed information where as information is data that has been to processed to provide a meaningful value.
Information processing is when a machine or processor interacts with the outside world and acts on the input it receives.
ADVANTAGES OF INFORMATION PROCESSING
* Tasks can be completed faster
* Computers can process large amounts of data and generate error-free results. * Computing storage devices can store enormous amounts of data * Efficiency and productivity can be raised.
* Running cost becomes lower in the long term
* Automation can be introduced. That is, tasks can be completed with little human intervention. * Overall security can be increased due to less human intervention. * Data and information can be shared with other computers.
DISADVANTAGES OF INFORMATION PROCESSING
* It may need a high initial investment in equipment and training. * More money may be needed to employ specialized staff to operate and design the information processing system. * Some jobs may be lost as a result of computerization, which may lower the morale of staff members. * Some staff must be trained or retrained.
* Face to face interaction between staff may be reduced.
SETTING UP AN INFORMATION PROCESSING SYSTEM:
Before setting up and information processing system, a business should consider the following questions: * Will computerization really solve the particular problem? * Is it cost effective in the long term?
* How large is the amount of data to be handled?
* Is high processing speed really important?
* Can the present staff manage the system?
* How can the loss of jobs be handled properly?
* What can be done to help staff adapt to computerization?
EXAMPLES OF INFORMATION PROCESSING
* At home, where bills can be paid either by phone or on the Internet. * For research and education through on-line classes where assignments and reports can be submitted electronically. * By all kinds of people who use the Internet to find a wealth of information. * Health care:
* Maintain patient records.
* Monitor patients’ vital signs.
* Perform computer-assisted medical tests.
* Research and diagnose medical conditions.
* Computers are used to keep track of all bank transactions. Customer accounts need to be updated every time a payment transaction is made whether by cheque, card or EFT. Electronic fund transfer (EFT) at the point of sale (EFTPOS) is useful for customers in a shop. * Payroll:
* A payroll system uses an information processing system to calculate the wages of each employee, print out pay-sips and record the information for accounting purposes. * Library:
* When a new member joins a library that is automated, a membership card is issued which has a barcode printed on it. Every book in the library also has a barcode printed inside it. * When a member takes a book out on loan, the barcode of the book and the barcode of the member’s card are read by a barcode reader. The coded information, along with the date that the book was borrowed, constitutes a transaction. * Control systems:
* Traffic lights are triggered by the bumper of the vehicle interacting with the sensor embedded in the road. A traffic light control system would not be very useful or safe if it did not respond adequately to the oncoming vehicles and stop the traffic. * Buildings with air conditioning have sensors which detect the temperature and humidity inside the buildings and turn the heating on or off when needed.
METHODS OF DATA CAPTURE
These forms must be designed so that their instructions are clear and concise leaving no doubt as to how to enter the data onto the form.
The responses from the forms are called human-readable since data entry personnel manually...
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