5.1 Issues in the Malaysia Tourism Industry
Malaysia tourism obtained the fast development as a result of it own superiorities in natural and cultural travel resources as well as government's vigorously support. It has become the country's second biggest source of foreign exchange and the third largest economy sector. But under this excellent prospect, we instead should have a more sober understanding to the tourism’s vulnerability and the issues in the Malaysia travel industry to continue developing it more successfully. Ⅰ Vulnerability of the tourism industry
Here I mention the vulnerability indicates that in a specific time and area , because of some special incidents’ influence, the tourism industry appears the random characteristic and produces a series of long time negative effect from this. The tourism’s vulnerability usually hides under the travel business’ long-term prosperousness, once meets some certain uncontrolled factors, then the negative effect is ready to be set off at a touch, and unceasingly accumulates and continually reacts. From the demand aspect, tourism is based on the satisfaction of the request from people’s daily lives then produces the top level of request for leisure. So the traveling demand is one kind of non-primary need, once people receive the threat of physiology (illness, unemployment) or safe (war, public security), the non-primary need must pass through inevitably for the primary need. From the supply aspect, tourism is a comprehensive industry that the traveling activities need many different industry departments’ coordination, if any link short will affect the overall situation. This had decided the tourism is a relatively frail industry in which the six big essential factors “food, lodge, transportation, tour, shopping and amusement” make it enormously extends to other profession domains and of course any of the outside has accident will affect the entire traveling industry. From the competition aspect, not as the food, medical service or education expenses, travel has great interchangeability; both similar products' competition and different products’ competition exist. Not to mention the competitions between the destination countries and between the different areas are more and more intense, the third place's political and economic factors and the tour companies’ different marketing strategies will also affect the received population and tourism income in a specific destination. Even completely different types of produces, like the local recreation facilities, the fitness exercises, education trainings may also become the competitors to the tourism activities and substitute people's traveling demand. Adverse consequences
As a result of the tourism industry’ own vulnerability, the adverse consequences are as follows: (1) The reduction of tourist quantity and tourism income
The most direct manifestation as the vulnerability is the non-conventional reduction of tourist quantity. Take 9/l1 as a example, the World Tourism Organization estimated, in the 4 months after 9/11 the number of the whole world international traveling people dropped 11% compared with the same time in the history, especially in the Central America area it dropped 24%, the Mideast dropped 30%. (2) The destruction of the tourism resources
Wars, terrorist attacks and natural disasters may destroy the tourism resources, the traveling facilities, the road and traffic infrastructures and so on. In the Iraq War, there were massive heritages and attractions got damaged or lost. These cultural relics are the historical testimony from the Mesopotamia civilization to the Islam civilization and also very important tourism resources in Iraq even in the whole world. (3) The pollution of the traveling environment
The influence of environmental pollution is usually lagged effects to the industry, but there also has exception. Spain’s Galician coast is a famous summer resort in Europe because of its precipitous seacoast...
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