Introduction to Communication
You should be able to: 1. Explain what communication means 2. Identify the main elements in communication process 3. differentiate between oral and written communication 4. Highlight basic tips on writing 5. List common pitfalls to be avoided writing
Take two minutes to list down all the words that you can associate with communication. Write down your own definition for communication.
Vice–President to Secretary – “Please call an Urgent meeting of all managers”.
Fixed meeting for the next morning
“Urgent” meant “Serious” and not “Immediate”
Reads ad about international power conference in Chennai Keen to attend Writes immediately to Chief Power Engineer -
The Chief Power Engineer
An international conference on power generation which would be of great interest to us is being held in Chennai. The enclosed brochure shows that the technical information to be presented in the conference would be of great help in our upcoming projects. The registration fee is just Rs.5,000/- & the cost of travel & stay about Rs.8,000/-. Hence, only Rs.13,000/- will be required. I am informing you about the conference now, so that you can take a decision in time for me to make necessary arrangements for train / flight bookings and stay.
Vinay Prasad, →Thanks for informing me about the conference in Chennai. I will certainly attend it. Please make all the necessary arrangements for me as suggested in your memo →Ashok Jha
What is communication?
Communication is ‘the act of giving, receiving or exchanging information, ideas and opinions so that the “message” is completely understood by both parties’.
Elements in Communication
Sender Message Channel Receiver Feedback Context
Time to mime!
Communication is successful only when both the sender and the receiver perceive and understand the message in the same way. Three things required to get the message across successfully are:
◦ The message; ◦ The audience or receiver; and ◦ How the message is received.
The meaning of communication lies in the way that it is received. DO YOU AGREE?
Factors Affecting Communication
a. b. c. d. e. f.
Status/Role Cultural Difference Choice of Communication Channels Length of Communication Use of Language Disabilities
Factors Affecting Communication Continued…
g. h. i. j. k.
Known or Unknown Receiver Individual Perceptions/Attitudes/Personalities Atmosphere/Noise/Distraction Clarity of Message Feedback
Task 4 - Effectiveness of Communication
Role plays in groups of 5. Comment on the effectiveness of what is communicated? How would one choose the most appropriate channel of communication?
Difference between Oral and Written Communication
Oral communication-conveying ideas, thoughts or information via spoken language Written communication-exchanging information using written symbols (letters, words and sentences). It can be in the form of letters, faxes, emails, reports, memos, and advertisements.
Involves creative effort • Begins in the mind 2. Delay occurs length of delay varies • Provides record -hence effective for long periods 3. Limited number of cycles
Face – to – face / phone • More expressive 2. Cycles occur faster in rapid succession • No records can be maintained unless recorded in writing 3. Involves many cycles
Writing can be improved through
◦ Extensive reading ◦ Note-taking ◦ Listening
Grammar and vocabulary also important for the unity and coherence of the ideas and supporting points presented.
Think carefully about possible barriers. Evaluate the complexity of the message and decide how it might be best conveyed.
Ask yourself these questions: • Who? Characteristics of the receiver(s). • Why? Purpose of the communication. • What? Content of the message. • How? Oral, written, visual or a combination of all three. • Where? Location of the meeting. • When? Timing/time limit/expected response time.
Determine whether you are meeting or writing to the people concerned. Decisions about the most appropriate channel of communication also depend on factors such as cost, time, confidentiality, convention, urgency and whether written documentation is required.
Written communication is the sharing and exchanging of written symbols between individuals or groups. Written communication can take place via: • Letters; • Faxes; • Email; • Reports; • Memos; and • Advertisements.
DEFINING WRITTEN COMMUNICATION
Task 5-Importance of Written Communication
Read pages 6and 7 of your text and summarise the advantages of record keeping!
WHY WRITTEN COMMUNICATION?
“Why do we need to communicate in written form? Why is there a need to document our work or keep written records?” ◦ to build up on existing pools of knowledge ◦ records can exist independently of the writer ◦ it provides an avenue not only for the sharing of ideas or opinions, but also for the presenting and defending of viewpoints ◦ “thinking made public”
Tips on Written Communication
The writing process involves:
◦ Planning ◦ Writing ◦ Editing
Pitfalls to avoid are:
Confusing language ◦ Verbosity ◦ Poor sentence structure ◦ Information overload
Challenges in Written Communication
New technologies When others fail to respond
◦ unclear message ◦ weak language ◦ too much information
Asking the right questions-self evaluation
(clear purpose, objective information, organisation of information, precision, clear instructions)
Revision on Topic 1
Identify the main elements in communication? (3 marks) Briefly explain 4 factors affecting communication process? (8 marks) State two reasons why written communication is important (4 marks) With the help of examples, explain 4 pitfalls to be avoided in written communication. (8 marks) What are the three important stages to produce good written communication? (3 marks)
1. Sender, Message, Channel, Receiver, Feed back, Context
Status/Role:( the difference in status sometimes affects the effectiveness of the communication process , For example; manager /employee) Cultural Difference: ( cultural differences both inside and outside organisation may impede the communication process, for example people from different ethnicities/beliefs Choice of Communication Channels:(you should make sure that the channel that you use is appropriate for a particular purpose otherwise you might end up creating confusion) Length of Communication: ( make sure to convey the message brief and clear , avoiding too long sentences) Use of Language: ( Poor choice of words or sentence structure also hampers communication
Disabilities : ( such as dyslexia, impaired sight and poor mental health can also hinder good communication , you should take these facts into consideration when you are communicating with such people) Known or Unknown Receiver: ( a known receiver will be having a better understanding of your message despite having insufficient information whereas the unknown receiver might need more information to decode the message) Individual Perceptions/Attitudes/Personalities: ( the method of communication needs to take into consideration the receiver’s personality traits, age preferred style) Atmosphere/Noise/Distraction: ( our surroundings plays a vital role in effective communication , For example a noisy place will definitely hamper the effectiveness of communication) Clarity of Message: ( the message conveyed should be clear and free from ambiguity) Feedback: ( it is important as it gives you the conformation that the message delivered is clear)
3. to build up on existing pools of knowledge
records can exist independently of the writer it provides an avenue not only for the sharing of ideas or opinions, but also for the presenting and defending of viewpoints “thinking made public”
4. Confusing language ( words that mislead the reader)
Verbosity( too many words) Poor sentence structure ( keep the sentence short and concise) Information overload ( avoid giving too much information)
Planning, Writing, Editing