The design of the product to be manufactured and the specification of which manufacturing process to adopt are critical considerations for the productions and operations managers (Banjoko, 2009). Product and process technology is rapidly evolving. Competition is becoming more and more globally based. Customers are emphasizing improved quality and reliability, but reduced defense spending requires an emphasis on value and affordability. This dynamic and challenging environment requires the implementation of integrated product development concepts to reduce development cycle time and improve product quality and value. Integrated Product Development (IPD) is based on the integrated design of products and manufacturing and support processes. It is not a matter of assessing the producibility, testability, supportability and quality of the product after it has been designed nor of focusing on related data item deliverables nor of extensive testing to improve quality or reliability. These approaches extend design cycle time, increase product development cost, and may not result in the most optimum way to produce and support the product. Instead, all of the competitive factors or "ilities" must be considered from the very start of product development and designed into the product. The design of the product and the process must be integrated to assure a more optimum approach to manufacture and support the product. A product is defined as all things the buyer receives in an exchange, bad and good, intended and unintended. Products include all things the buyer receives including the physical attributes (a new car) and the intangible attributes (a warranty and a financing contract). Given the rapid changes in consumer tastes, technology, innovation and competition, companies must develop a steady stream of new products and services. A firm can obtain new products in two ways:
One is through acquisition—by buying a whole company, a patent, or a license to produce someone else's product.
The other is through new-product development in the company's own research and development department. By new products I mean original products, product improvements, product modifications, and new brands that the firm develops through its own research and development efforts. Various studies suggest that new-product success depends on developing a unique superior product, one with higher quality, new features, and higher value in use. Another key success factor is a well defined product concept prior to development, in which the company carefully defines and assesses the target market, the product requirements, and the benefits before proceeding. Other success factors have also been suggested—senior management commitment, relentless innovation, and a smoothly functioning new-product development process. In all, to create successful new products, a company must understand its consumers, markets, and competitors and develop products that deliver superior value to customers. So companies face a problem—they must develop new products, but the odds weigh heavily against success. The solution lies in strong new-product planning and in setting up a systematic new-product development process for finding and growing new products. The ideal climate for NPD
There are several characteristics that help describe an ideal climate for the new product development process. A list of these characteristics is as follows;
Goal clarity: the objectives of the task are jointly understood
Resources: adequate economic and non-economic support for the task
Encouragement: sincere emotional support for the task
Freedom: the ability to explore whatever directions of inquiry that are needed
Integrity: management does what it says it will do
For a new product to come up to the production line of any mono- product company in Nigeria and any other nation of the world, the process involved are summarized as follows; Idea generation
Bibliography: Banjoko S. A, Production and Operations Management (Republish edition, 2009)
Principle of Marketing –MGT301 VU @copyright Virtual University of Pakistan
Ulrich, Karl T. and Eppinger, Steven D(2004) Product Design and Development, 3rd Edition, McGraw- Hill, New York, 2004.
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