Instructional Design

Topics: Instructional design, Educational technology, Evaluation Pages: 16 (4402 words) Published: December 14, 2009

The ISD Model was designed to solve human performance problems (U.S. Department of Defense, 1975). The figure shown below is a flowchart of the ISD model. It was first established by Florida State University in conjunction with the Department of Defense, but can now be found in almost any type of organization .It grew out of the ‘systems analysis’ concepts that became popular after World War II and is probably the most extensively used instructional design model in use today. Instructional Design (also called Instructional Systems Design (ISD)) is the practice of maximizing the effectiveness, efficiency and appeal of instruction and other learning experiences. The process consists broadly of determining the current state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some "intervention" to assist in the transition.

Instructional design is the systematic specification of instruction to include: presentation, activities, materials, guidance, feedback and evaluation. It applies learning principles to decisions about information content, instructional method, use of media and delivery system.

The goal is to ensure instructional quality, effectiveness, efficiency and enjoyment. The purpose of instructional design is to maximize the value of instruction for the learner — especially the learner's time. Instruction provides a concentration of life-experience into a shortened, optimized time frame and provides feedback to ensure that learning objectives are actually being achieved. Ideally, instruction allows the knowledge, wisdom, and skills of an instructor-author to be personally communicated or demonstrated to a learner.


The most common model of Instructional System Design is ADDIE, which stands for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement and Evaluate. ADDIE is an approach for creating the best instruction in an organized, efficient, and effective manner. It is a generic process that provides a systematic approach to help instructional designers and training developers build and create effective instructional products and training programs.

The ADDIE model is comprised of the five phases of the learning development process. Each phase has an outcome that feeds to the next phase. Together, they work like a loop. There are ongoing activities continually repeated throughout the entire program.


The Analyze phase is the foundation for all other phases of instructional System design. Its main purpose is to clarify the instructional problems, establish the instructional goals and objectives, and identify the learning environment including the learner’s existing knowledge, skills, and materials.

The phase may include specific research techniques such as needs analysis, job analysis and task analysis. The outputs of this phase often include the instructional goals, and a list of tasks to be instructed. These Outputs will be the inputs for the Design phase.

1. Needs Assessment

People learn to meet a need. The need might be to perform a task, react, or think in a certain way given a set of conditions.

The main purpose of the Needs Assessment is to identify what problem is triggering the desire for learning or training and to identify the specific knowledge/skills the learner needs to acquire. We have to analyze the level of commitment of the learner/ his supervisor, the limitations of time and resources available for these learners, who is financing this learning program and his expectations from this program.

Identifying such information is essential to establish the goals and objectives of the training program and designing it in a way that it effectively delivers an instructional solution yielding the desired learner behavior.

2. Audience Analysis

The main purpose of this step is to analyze the persons enrolled, their present level of skills/knowledge of learners,...
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