1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Communication has crucial impacts within or among workgroups in any organization. Communication can be a channel to flow information, resources, and even policies. Communication has crucial impacts within or among work groups in that organizational. Communication is a channel to flow information, resources, and even policies. Organizational communication can be broadly defined as communication with one another in the context of an organization (Eisenberg & Goodall, 1997; Shockley-Zalabak, 2006).This type of communication, in turn, includes activities of sending and receiving messages through various layers of authority, using various message systems, and discussing various topics of interest to the group we belong to or the company we work for. Organizational communication research has mainly been conducted both in the business management field and in the communication field; however, researchers in the public administration field have provided little knowledge about organizational communication.
Several studies emphasize that effective communication can enhance organizational outcomes (Garnett, Marlowe, & Pandey, 2008; Pandey & Garnett, 2006). Communication can influence on the perceptions and opinions about persons, communities, organizations, governments, and even society. One of the outcomes of administrative communication is related to the flow of information, regulations, policies, and procedures. Communication is essential to any kind of organization and information plays a crucial role in effective communication. Theory on organizational communication has evolved from the concept as a tool of management designed to facilitate task completion and as such was to operate as one of many organizational variables (Shockley-Zalabak, 2006). As a tool of management, communication is “the central means by which individual activity is coordinated to devise, disseminate, and pursue organizational goals” (Gardner, Paulsen, Gallois, Callan, & Monaghan, 2001, p. 7). From the scientific management viewpoint, communication is a tool of organizational design to facilitate and operate task completion so that the theorists had emphasis on communication flow from supervisors to subordinates (Shockley-Zalabak, 2006). Likewise, Taylor’s scientific management was operated by a well-defined chain of command and specific division of labor. These two principles were developed based on work standards and measurement of standards. From his point of view, communication can be explained as a tool to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the chain of command, rules, and regulations
On the other hand, many scholars view communication as a core process of organizing (Jones, Watson, Garner, & Gallois, 2004; Orlikowski & Yates, 1994; Weick, 1987). As the human behavior perspective has been important in the atmosphere to emphasize cooperation, participation, satisfaction, and interpersonal relationships among workers, communication-related issues have also been recognized for organizing processes. Effective communication was a cornerstone of the human behavior perspective, so theorists emphasized interactive communication among employees to improve mutual trust. They also recognized the importance of both formal and informal communication. This perspective has provided an idea about communication as an organizing process of human interaction and has influenced the theoretical backgrounds of communication theorists. Weick (1987, pp. 97-98), for example, said “Interpersonal communication is the essence of organization because it creates structures that then affect what else gets said and done and by whom… the structures themselves create additional resources for communication such as hierarchical levels, common tasks, exchangeable commodities, and negotiable dependencies.” Orlikowski and Yates (1994, p. 541) also understood communication as “an essential elements in the...
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