Hr- Training and Development

Topics: Employment, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, Customer satisfaction Pages: 14 (3036 words) Published: December 30, 2010
It has been quite a challenging task for the Human Resource Management people to design such strategies which will transform the workforce as motivated and retained for high performance work organization (Thompson, 2004). HRM makes continuous efforts to develop such policies which will motivate the human resource for sustained competitive advantage (Barney’s, 1991, Wright, et al., 1994). These efforts must include incentives, pay packages which makes an employee more comfortable and committed with the organization. HRM also needs to understand the implications of the different incentive plans for different organizational levels.

Employee satisfaction is the most frequently researched area in the management sciences (Schneider and Brief, 1992). Employees will stay longer with the company “Higher retention of the right caliber of employees creates a stable and experienced labor force that delivers higher service quality at lower cost (Guthrie, J.P. 2001), this leads to higher customer retention and of course increased productivity with profitability. Researchers have also tried to further this relationship that a satisfied employee will be instrumental in keeping the customers satisfied thus yielding increased profitability (Bain and Co, 1991).

Another way of understanding the importance of employee is that customer satisfaction can only be achieved through employee satisfaction. For example, Berry (1981) states that whether managing customers or employees “the central purpose remains the same; the attraction of patronage through the satisfaction of needs and wants”. In both cases individuals and organizations are involved in exchange. The nature of what is exchanged may vary, but the importance of satisfying needs and wants remains constant, meaning that the management of employees is often similar to the management of customers.

After realizing that employees may be viewed as customers, it seems important to know whether the field of customer satisfaction measurement has developed any insights recently that can be applied in the employee setting. In fact, the quality revolution has prompted an explosion in customer satisfaction research and recent years have brought impressive gains in merging the field of customer satisfaction (traditionally focusing on consumer psychology and paying little attention to managerial application) with the field of service quality.

The purpose of this paper is to show how several of these recent advances in customer satisfaction measurement can be applied usefully in the context of employee satisfaction and retention. This requires a change of management paradigm, from employees as replaceable and low paid servants to employee as customer. Employees must not be viewed as not just someone who must listen to management, but also as someone who management must listen to.

The theory of reasoned action asserts that attitudes lead to intentions which lead to behaviors’. This theory has received a great deal of empirical support (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980; Hom and Hulin, 1981; Steele and ovalle, 1984), and explains the similarity between the psychological mechanisms underlying customer and employee retention. High satisfaction results in an intention to remain in the economic exchange with the organization. Intentions translate directly to behavior, suggesting that employees are indeed similar to customers when it comes to satisfaction and retention.

Literature Review:
Effectively measuring and improving employee satisfaction is very critical for the existence of an organization. Since businesses are becoming more competitive and employees with the rare skills and abilities needed to become competitively advantageous are becoming scarce and management can no longer effort to see employees as replaceable inputs (Miles and Creed, 1995). Now management has to see employees as valuable contributors who are real source of knowledge and strength for a viable and...

References: Anderson, E.W. and Sullivan, M.W. (1993), “The antecedents and consequences of customer satisfaction for firms”, Marketing Science, Vol. 12, Spring, pp.125-43.
Berry, L.L. (1981), “The employee as customer”, Journal of Retail Banking, 3 March, pp.33-40.
Lawler, E.E. III (1992), The Ultimate Advantage: Creating the High involvement Organization, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.
Mobley, W.H., Griffeth, R.W., Hand , H.H. and Meglino, B.M. (1979), “Review and conceptual analysis of the employee turnover process”, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 86, pp.493-552.
Oliver, R.L. (1980), “A congnitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.42, November, pp.460-69.
Oliver, R.L. (1989), “ Processing of the satisfaction response in consumption; a suggested framework and research propositions”, Journal of Consumer satisfaction, Dissatisfaction, and complaining Behavior, Vol.2, pp.1-16.
Reichheld, F.F. and Sasser, W.E. Jr (1990), “Zero defections: quality comes to services”, Harvard Business Review, September-October, pp. 105-11.
Rousseau, D.M. and McLean Parks, J. (1992), “The contracts of individuals and organizations”, Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol.15, pp. 1-43.
Rust, R.T. and Zahorik, A.J. (1993), “Customer satisfaction, customer retention, and market share”, Journal of Retailing, Vol.69, Summer, pp. 193-215
Schneider, B., and Brief, A.P
Locke, 1976, P.1300, job satisfaction is defined as “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experiences”.
Bray field and Crockett, 1955; Organ, 1977; Vroom, 1964; relationship between employee satisfaction and performance.
Petty et al. (1984) concluded that job satisfaction and performance are positively correlated.
(Hom and Griffeth, 1991; Hulin et al., 1985; March and Simon, 1958; Mobley et al., 1979; Price and Mueller, 1986; Rusbult and Farrell, 1983), Models of employee turnover almost universally propose a negative relationship between satisfaction and turnover.
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