Chapter 25: O can you see the C’s? ( 1940 - 1960 )
Kennedy and the Cold War
- After 8 years in the White House Eisenhower had to retire because of the 22nd Amendment. 22nd ratified in 1951 in reaction to FDR’s four terms as president but did not permit Eisenhower or anyone else to run for more than two terms in office.
- Eisenhower tepidly endorsed his vice president, Richard Nixon who had gotten his fame from 1950’s Red Scare.
- Democrats nominated John F. Kennedy who was a senator in Massachusetts.
- John F. Kennedy was seen as a hero during World War 2 with an easy demeanor and good sense of humor.
- Kennedy and Nixon promised Americans that they would execute the cold war better than Eisenhower. Many, Americans felt like Kennedy could not lead the nation because he was a catholic and wanted him to consult the pope. Became first catholic president in history.
Map of Election of 1960 p. 453.
- Kennedy spoke a lot on “ new frontier” during his campaign but when in office his agended changed. Which, lacked major programs to develop.
- During Kennedy election he vowed to take more aggressive approach to the cold war than Eisenhower. An increase ment on federal aid for education, medical care, mass transit, unemployment, and urban affairs department generally went no where.
- Nation Building
- Kennedy seeked support from developing nations to win by facilitating their economic and political maturation.
Nation Building: Facilitating the economic and political maturation of developing nations; political strategy employed by Presi. Kennedy in order to prevent developing nations from adopting communism.
- Kennedy believed in the doctrine of containment and announced his willingness to wage preemptive strikes to prevent the march of communism.
Berlin Wall: Built by communist government to separate impoverished, Soviet - controlled East Berlin from the more prosperous West Berlin.
Kennedy the Cold Warrior
- Cuba and Vietnam was presidents two biggest concern. Cuba had been a main concern of U.S. foreign policy since the Spanish american war for two reasons:
1. The U.S feared any political turmoil so close to its border
2. Many American had invested in the country
The long concerns were compounded when Fidel Castro took power in 1959 and established a communist regime. The regime distressed Kennedy because it meant that one more communist country in the world, but also because the Soviet Union now had an ally just 90 miles from U.S shores. Kennedy dedicated himself to remove the communist and Castro.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
- CIA had a plan to overthrow Castro Kennedy went along with plan in april 1961.
- The plan was to use air cover, reefs, and swampy terrain meant that 1,400 commandos had a tough landing. The plan got back to Castro and when the commandos arrived Castro forces were waiting to capture them as they land.
- Kennedy wanted to conceal U.S aims to overthrow or even assassinate Castro but CIA ordered his to do nothing and allow the operation to fail, or send U.S military forces into Cuba.
- Since Kennedy chose to do nothing 1,200 exiles were captured and went on trial some were executed and most were sentenced to 30 yrs in prison. the prisoners were released in 20 months in exchange for $53 million in food and medicine.
Cuban Missile Crises
- President Kennedy launched assault on Castro regime, which included radio broadcasts, assassination plots, and sabotage raids.
- In April 1962 Castro agreed to allow the Soviet Union to base a few of its nuclear missiles in Cuba to protect his communist revolution.